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Table 1 Characteristics and medical utilization in the case and control groups

From: Long-term medical utilization following ventilator-associated pneumonia in acute stroke and traumatic brain injury patients: a case-control study

  Total
(n = 2,802)
Case group (n = 943) Control group (n = 1,868) p-value
Basic characteristics     
Age a, mean ± SD 65.8 ± 15.1 65.8 ± 15.1 65.8 ± 15.04 N.A.
Gender b, n (%)     N.A.
   Female 912(32.5) 304(32.5) 608(32.5)  
   Male 1,890(67.5) 630(67. 5) 1,260(67. 5)  
Diagnosis at hospitalization b, n (%)     N.A.
   Traumatic brain injury 627(22.4) 209(22.4) 418(22.4)  
   Acute hemorrhagic stroke 1,215(43.4) 405(43.4) 810(43.4)  
   Acute ischemic stroke 960(34.2) 320(34.2) 640(34.2)  
Hospital size b, n (%)     N.A.
   Medical center 1,284(45.8) 428(45.8) 856(45.8)  
   Regional hospital 1,302(46.5) 434(46.5) 868(46.5)  
   District hospital 216(7.7) 72(7.7) 144(7.7)  
Chronic respiratory disease history b, n (%)     0.751
   No 2,159(77.1) 723(77.4) 1,436(76.9)  
   Yes 643(22.9) 211(22.6) 432(23.1)  
Ventilation days a, mean ± SD 13.8 ± 10.2 16.1 ± 10.5 12.7 ± 9.9 <0.001
Number of Elixhauser comorbidities a, mean ± SD 1.8 ± 1.7 1.8 ± 1.7 1.8 ± 1.7 0.841
Utilizations during the index hospitalization     
   Hospitalization expenses a, mean ± SD 12,883 ± 9,016 14,063 ± 8,999 12,294 ± 8,969 <0.001
   Hospitalization days a, mean ± SD 42.4 ± 32.7 45.6 ± 33.2 40.8 ± 32.34 <0.001
   ICU days a, mean ± SD 17.7 ± 12.3 20.8 ± 12.9 16.2 ± 11.6 <0.001
Utilizations during the follow-up period     
   Hospitalization expenses a, mean ± SD 16,050 ± 23,000 17,840 ± 23,354 15,156 ± 22,774 0.004
   Outpatient expenses a, mean ± SD 3,274 ± 4,663 3,120 ± 4,863 3,350 ± 4,559 0.218
   Total medical expenses a, mean ± SD 19,324 ± 22,694 20,960 ± 23,114 18,507 ± 22,442 0.007
   Number of ER visits a, mean ± SD 1.7 ± 2.6 1.7 ± 2.6 1.7 ± 2.6 0.509
   Number of readmissions a, mean ± SD 4.2 ± 4.5 4.6 ± 4.6 4.0 ± 4.5 0.003
   Hospitalization days a, mean ± SD 111.1 ± 170.7 123.6 ± 174.3 104.8 ± 168.6 0.006
   ICU days a, mean ± SD 3.9 ± 11.0 4.7 ± 11.9 3.6 ± 10.5 0.007
  1. a t-test; b chi-square test
  2. N.A. Not applicable