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Table 4 Multilevel linear regression of outpatient contacts of schizophrenia patients, N = 1097

From: Factors associated with use of community mental health services by schizophrenia patients using multilevel analysis

  Unadjusted model estimate Adjusted model estimate
  Coef. SE t P value Coef. SE t P value
Sex (male) 0.17 0.06 2.69 0.00** 0.00 0.05 -0.04 0.97
Age (years) -0.52 0.10 -5.10 0.00** -0.12 0.11 -1.15 0.25
Marital status         
Single # 1.00     1.00    
Married/with partner -0.45 0.08 -5.80 0.00** -0.04 0.09 -0.42 0.67
Separated/divorced/widowed -0.20 0.09 -2.09 0.04** 0.01 0.08 0.07 0.95
Employment status         
Employed # 1.00     1.00    
Unemployed 0.27 0.11 2.27 0.02** 0.02 0.09 0.30 0.76
Student 0.13 0.15 0.89 0.38 0.02 0.12 0.16 0.87
Looking after family or home -0.18 0.14 -1.27 0.20 0.15 0.12 1.30 0.19
Not working, receiving welfare benefits 0.34 0.09 3.64 0.00** 0.19 0.08 2.34 0.02**
Other 0.05 0.13 0.41 0.68 -0.03 0.10 -0.30 0.76
Level of education         
Primary School # 1.00     1.00    
Secondary School 0.27 0.08 3.42 0.00** 0.11 0.06 1.68 0.09
No formal education and illiterate 0.32 0.09 3.57 0.00** 0.17 0.46 2.29 0.02**
Higher education (Bachelor's degree) 0.10 0.12 0.86 0.39 0.10 0.98 1.07 0.28
Type of living arrangement         
Original family/other relatives or friends # 1.00     1.00    
Own family -0.38 0.08 -4.95 0.00** -0.01 0.09 -0.18 0.86
Alone 0.06 0.12 0.52 0.60 0.18 0.09 1.96 0.05
Sheltered accommodation 0.04 0.13 0.27 0.78 0.00 0.10 0.05 0.96
Homeless -0.15 0.24 -0.62 0.54 0.18 0.15 1.17 0.24
Residence catchment area         
Centro # 1.00     1.00    
Guadalmedina -0.07 0.12 -0.56 0.57 0.05 0.08 0.64 0.52
Outside study area -0.32 0.17 -1.87 0.06 -0.17 0.10 -1.80 0.07
Residence municipality by rurality factorÇ         
Malaga (city) (-1.78: less rurality) # 1.00     1.00    
Rincón de la Victoria (-1.78) -0.19 0.18 -1.04 0.30 -0.18 10.00 -1.68 0.09
Other villages (-1.59 to - 0.61: more rurality) -0.38 0.18 -2.03 0.04** -0.24 0.13 -1.82 0.07
Outside area -0.31 0.15 -2.09 0.04** Omitted&    
Clinical diagnoses (ICD-10)         
F20 Schizophrenia # 1.00     1.00    
F22 Persistent delusional disorders -0.51 0.08 -6.00 0.00** -0.15 0.07 -2.03 0.04**
F23 Acute and transient psychotic disorders -0.07 0.11 -0.61 0.54 0.10 0.09 1.11 0.27
F25 Schizoaffective disorders 0.20 0.12 1.68 0.09 0.06 0.09 0.62 0.54
F21,F24,F28 Y F29 @ -0.28 0.15 -1.84 0.06 -0.06 0.12 -0.54 0.59
Global Level of Severity         
Level I (less severity) # 1.00     1.00    
Level II 0.40 0.70 5.64 0.00** 0.23 0.61 3.78 0.00**
Level III 0.97 0.11 8.87 0.00** 0.45 0.94 4.79 0.00**
Level IV (more severity) 0.74 0.21 3.48 0.00** 0.35 0.18 1.92 0.06
Type of professional who attended patients         
Only psychiatrists # 1.00     1.00    
Only nurses 0.22 0.10 2.18 0.03** 0.02 0.10 0.24 0.81
Both (psychiatrists and nurses) 1.31 0.53 24.98 0.00** 1.09 0.06 19.56 0.00**
Other professionals -0.78 0.29 -2.65 0.01** -0.91 0.29 -3.10 0.00**
Psychiatrist who attended patients         
C # 1.00     1.00    
B 0.00 0.13 0.00 0.99 -0.08 0.10 -0.76 0.45
L -0.29 0.20 -1.47 0.14 -0.30 0.16 -1.90 0.06
H 0.26 0.14 1.81 0.07 0.13 0.11 1.14 0.26
E -0.42 0.14 -3.00 0.00** -0.50 0.11 -4.49 0.00**
D -0.15 0.15 -0.99 0.32 -0.20 0.12 -1.71 0.09
K -0.36 0.20 -1.79 0.07 -0.25 0.16 -1.61 0.11
F -0.22 0.15 -1.42 0.16 -0.35 0.12 -2.83 0.00**
G -0.28 0.15 -1.81 0.07 -0.19 0.13 -1.49 0.14
I -0.36 0.20 -1.78 0.08 -0.40 0.14 -2.78 0.00**
A -0.37 0.14 -2.63 0.01** -0.26 0.11 -2.32 0.02**
J -0.36 0.19 -1.92 0.06 -0.16 0.16 -1.00 0.32
M -0.17 0.23 -0.75 0.45 0.08 0.18 0.41 0.68
Number of inpatient psychiatric admissions         
0 admissions # 1.00     1.00    
1 admission 1.00 0.16 6.36 0.00** 1.18 0.36 3.25 0.00**
2+ admissions 1.26 0.20 6.43 0.00** 1.12 0.29 3.88 0.00**
Number of readmissions         
0 admissions, 0 readmissions # 1.00     1.00    
Any inpatient admission, 0 readmissions 1.04 0.14 7.53 0.00** -0.45 0.30 -1.53 0.12
Any inpatient admission, 1+ readmissions 1.33 0.27 4.92 0.00** Omitted&    
Number of days in hospital         
0 day # 1.00     1.00    
<19 days 1.07 0.15 7.06 0.00** -0.26 0.21 -1.25 0.21
19+ days 1.16 0.21 5.55 0.00** Omitted&    
  1. Multilevel linear regression with imputed data (20 data sets). Adjusted coefficients of the full model (including all variables)
  2. # Reference groups in all references; Ç rurality index developed for the Spanish population which has range of -3.59 (minimum) to 3.78 (maximum);
  3. @ F21 = Schizotypal disorder, F24 = Induced delusional disorder, F28 = other non-organic psychotic disorders and F29 = Unspecified non-organic psychosis;
  4. &Omitted because of collinearity. Coef: Coeficient Beta; SE: Standard Error; t: experimental value; Transformed by logarithm (x+1). Figures in bold (**) P < 0.05.