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Table 1 Characteristics of respondents, and univariate association of variables affecting (i) perceived change of health seeking behaviours and (ii) use of vouchers upon the introduction of voucher scheme

From: Can vouchers make a difference to the use of private primary care services by older people? Experience from the healthcare reform programme in Hong Kong

   (i) Perceived change
Whether changed health seeking behaviours
(ii) Use of voucher
Whether ever used
the vouchers
Variable Total Yes No P value of difference Yes No P value of difference
Demographics        
Sex        
   Men 437 (42.6) 118 (29.9) 277 (70.1) 0.058 147
(35.1)
272
(64.9)
0.408
   Women 589 (57.4) 129 (24.3) 402 (75.7)   212
(37.7)
351
(62.3)
 
Age        
   70 - 79 636 (62.2) 158 (26.9) 430 (73.1) 0.599 223
(36.3)
392
(63.7)
0.577
   80 - 89 345 (33.7) 79 (25.8) 227 (74.2)   125
(37.3)
210
(62.7)
 
   90 or above 42
(4.1)
10 (34.5) 19 (65.5)   8
(27.6)
21
(72.4)
 
Marital status        
   Single 42
(4.1)
10 (27.8) 26 (72.2) 0.035 13
(31.7)
28
(68.3)
0.724
   Married 661 (64.7) 178 (29.3) 429 (70.7)   233
(36.5)
406
(63.5)
 
   Divorced/Separated Widowed 319 (31.2) 59 (21.1) 221 (78.9)   113
(37.9)
185
(62.1)
 
Education level        
   No education 366 (35.7) 70 (21.5) 256 (78.5) 0.003 156
(44.4)
195
(55.6)
0.002
   Primary 378 (36.9) 109
(31.8)
234 (68.2)   121
(33.3)
242
(66.7)
 
   Secondary 211 (20.6) 58 (30.1) 135 (69.9)   62
(31.5)
135
(68.5)
 
   Tertiary or above 70
(6.8)
10 (15.9) 53 (84.1)   20
(28.6)
50
(71.4)
 
Monthly household income        
   No income 85
(8.3)
17 (22.1) 60 (77.9) < 0.001 21
(26.3)
59
(73.8)
< 0.001
   HK"tabcaption"-9,999 352 (34.4) 61 (18.7) 265 (81.3)   163
(46.3)
189
(53.7)
 
   HK$10,000 or above 101 (9.9) 25 (26.6) 69 (73.4)   34
(34.0)
66
(66.0)
 
   Don't know/Not willing to answer 486 (47.5) 144 (33.7) 283 (66.3)   139
(31.0)
309
(69.0)
 
Social security assistance        
   Had social security assistance 102 (9.9) 27 (30.3) 62 (69.7) 0.411 35
(35.7)
63
(64.3)
0.855
Living status        
   Lived alone 222 (21.7) 51 (26.0) 145 (74.0) 0.792 77
(37.7)
127
(62.3)
0.654
Private health insurance
Had private health insurance 66
(6.5)
10 (17.2) 48 (82.8) 0.088 25
(41.0)
36
(59.0)
0.442
Health condition        
Self-rated health compared with last year
   Better 118 (11.5) 52 (49.1) 54 (50.9) < 0.001 28
(25.7)
81
(74.3)
< 0.001
   Similar 481 (46.9) 109 (25.5) 318 (74.5)   147
(32.2)
309
(67.8)
 
   Worse 426 (41.5) 85 (21.7) 307 (78.3)   184
(44.1)
233
(55.9)
 
Chronic condition        
   Had Diabetes 243 (23.7) 48 (22.3) 167 (77.7) 0.100 78
(34.2)
150
(65.8)
0.401
   Had high blood pressure 632 (61.6) 143 (24.9) 431 (75.1) 0.122 231
(37.7)
382
(62.3)
0.345
Medical consultation        
Usually go to see which types of doctors before launch of voucher scheme
   Public doctor only 349 (34.1) 69 (21.0) 260 (79.0) < 0.001 82
(23.6)
265
(76.4)
< 0.001
Private doctor only 201 (19.6) 41 (22.2) 144 (77.8)   98
(49.0)
102
(51.0)
 
Both public and private doctor 454 (44.3) 133 (33.3) 267 (66.8)   176
(41.6)
247
(58.4)
 
   Don't know 20
(2.0)
4
(36.4)
7
(63.6)
  8
(80.0)
2
(20.0)
 
Medical consultation in the past one month (excluding the current episode for older people recruited in clinics)
Had medical consultation 421 (41.2) 88 (22.6) 302 (77.4) 0.018 199
(47.6)
219
(52.4)
< 0.001
Had hospitalization in the past one year
Had hospitalization 200 (19.8) 48 (26.2) 135 (73.8) 0.946 89
(45.4)
107
(54.6)
0.004
  1. Values are numbers (percentages) of respondents.
  2. Summation of respondent in saying "yes" and "no" on the questions of perceive change/use of voucher is not equal to the total number of respondent since we exclude those saying "don't know"/"don't remember"; P-value indicates significant difference between the perceived change/use of voucher and each independent variable.