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Table 3 Characteristic of the innovation influencing adoption (adapted from Greenhalgh et al[18])

From: Ten steps or climbing a mountain: A study of Australian health professionals' perceptions of implementing the baby friendly health initiative to protect, promote and support breastfeeding

• relative advantage - innovations that have a clear unambiguous advantage in either effectiveness or cost effectiveness are more easily adopted and implemented (p 594).
• compatibility - innovations that are compatible with the adopters norms, values, needs are more easily adopted; similarly if compatible with organisation's or professions' norms, values, ways of doing things the innovation will be more easily adopted (p. 596).
• complexity - innovations that are perceived by key players as simple to use are easier to adopt. Complexity can be reduced by practical experience and by demonstration or by breaking the innovation into manageable parts and adopted incrementally/If there are few organisational response barriers then it is easier to adopt an innovation (p.596).
• trialability - if the innovation can be trialled it will be more easily adopted (p. 596).
• observability - if benefits of innovation can be seen by adopters then it will be more easily adopted (p. 596).
• reinvention - if potential adapters can modify or refine the innovation to suit adopters and organisations then it will be more easily adopted (p.596).
• fuzzy boundary - innovations will typically have a hard core or elements that are non-negotiable) and a 'soft periphery' of organisational structures and systems that need to adapt to accommodate the innovation-the more adaptable the periphery, the easier it will be to adopt the innovation (.597).
• risk - if the innovation is surrounded by a high degree of uncertainty related to outcome then it is less likely to be adopted easily (p. 597).
• task issues - if an innovation is relevant to the user's work and if it makes a job easier then it is more easily adopted (p. 597).
• knowledge required - if knowledge required to use or impellent the innovation can be codified and transferred in different contexts, then it will be more easily adopted (p.597).
• augmentation/support - external support eg customization, training, will help increase adoption (p. 598).