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Table 3 Multivariable regression results for predictors available at age two associated with PIAT scores in math, reading recognition, and reading comprehension at age six or seven

From: Early identification of young children at risk for poor academic achievement: preliminary development of a parent-report prediction tool

Predictor School Success Outcomes
  Math
(n = 2200)
Reading Recognition
(n = 2178)
Reading Comprehension
(n = 1384)
Adjusted R 2 0.24 0.19 0.17
Intercepts 87.68 87.18 96.24
CHILD CHARACTERISTICS    
Child Demographics    
Female 0.30 2.04 1.50
Number of children    
   1 child   Reference  
   2-3 children -1.21* -2.11 -1.55
   4 or more children -2.85 -3.96 -2.08*
Developmental abilities    
Motor-Social Development score 0.12 0.09 0.06
Personality    
Brief Compliance Scale score 0.19 0.11* 0.03
FAMILY CHARACTERISTICS    
Maternal age at child's birth 0.09 0.30 0.30
Maternal race/ethnicity    
   Non-hispanic white   Reference  
   African-American -4.57 -0.41 -0.92
   Hispanic -2.28 0.38 -0.39
   Asian/Pacific Islander 1.13 7.57 4.13
   Native American -9.26 -4.96* 4.21
   Other -0.13 2.04 1.50
Maternal interview not in English -4.53 -5.57 0.24
Maternal educational attainment    
   Less than high school -9.16 -7.11 -5.22
   High school -5.86 -3.80 -3.26
   Some college -2.95 -1.53* -0.90
   Bachelor's degree or beyond   Reference  
Income (in dollars) 5.52*E-7 1.08*10 -5 4.70*10-6
HOME ENVIRONMENT    
Family structure & conflict over child rearing    
Married/Partner Low Conflict   Reference  
Married/Partner High Conflict -2.06 -1.20 -2.12
Married/Partner Unknown Conflict -0.99 -1.69 -3.66
Unmarried/No partner -3.22 -2.11 -2.70
Number of books child has of his/her own    
< 3   Reference  
3-9 2.30 1.72* 0.59
≥ 10 2.65 2.06* 0.25
Frequency of reading to child    
Less than three times per week   Reference  
Three times per week 0.44 0.06 1.42*
Daily 1.67 0.47 1.56*
  1. Notes: Beta values from weighted regression models are presented for each predictor. In the entire NLSY79 Child Files encompassing the rounds from which we drew our sample, approximate response rates for Math and Reading Recognition scores were 92 percent and 91 percent, respectively [47]. Reading Comprehension responses rates were typically lower, ranging from 86 percent to 91 percent [47]. This resulted in sample sizes for our analyses of six and seven-year olds of 2200 for math, 2178 for reading recognition, and 1384 for reading comprehension. All values in bold are significant at p < 0.01.
  2. * p < 0.05.