Skip to main content

Table 1 Questionnaire scale items

From: Psychometric properties of the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture for hospital management (HSOPS_M)

Dimension Item  
Safety Culture Dimensions   
Hospital management support F1 Hospital management provides a work climate that promotes patient safety.
for patient safety F8 The actions of hospital management show that patient safety is a top priority.
  F9r Hospital management seem to be interested in patient safety only after an adverse event happens.
Supervisor/manager expectations/actions B1 Supervisors/managers say a good word when they see that a job has been done according to established procedures (standards and guidelines).*
  B2 Supervisors/managers seriously consider staff suggestions for improving patient safety.
  B3r Whenever pressure builds up, supervisors/managers want staff to work faster, even if it means taking shortcuts or skipping steps.
  B4r Supervisors/managers overlook patient safety problems that happen over and over.
Teamwork across hospital F2r Hospital units do not coordinate well with each other.
units F4 There is good cooperation among hospital units that need to work together.
  F6r It is often unpleasant for staff from one hospital unit to work with staff from other hospital units.
  F10 Hospital units work well together to provide the best care for patients.
Teamwork within units A1 Staff support one another within the units.
  A3 When a lot of work needs to be done quickly, staff within the units work together as a team to get the work done.
  A4 Staff within the units treat each other with respect.
  A11 When one area within a unit gets really busy, others help out.
Communication openness C2 Staff within units will freely speak up if they see something that may negatively affect patient care.
  C4 Staff within units feel free to question the decisions or actions of those with more authority.
  C6r Staff within units are afraid to ask questions when something does not seem right.
Hospital handoffs and F3r Things "fall between the cracks" when transferring patients from one unit to another.
transitions F5r Important patient care information is often lost during shift changes within the hospital units.
  F7r Problems often occur during the exchange of information across hospital units.
  F11r Shift changes are problematic for patients within the hospital units.
Nonpunitive response to error A8r Staff within the individual units feel like their mistakes are held against them.
  A12r When an event (e.g., mistake) is reported, it feels like the person is being written up, not the problem.*
  A16r Staff worry that mistakes they make are kept in their personnel file.
Feedback and communication about errors C1 Staff within units are given feedback about changes put into place based on events reported (e.g., mistakes).*
  C3 Staff within units are informed about events (e.g., errors) that happen in their units.*
  C5 Staff within units discuss ways to prevent an event (e.g., error) from happening again.*
Staffing A2 Units within this hospital have enough staff to handle the workload.
  A5r Unit staff work longer hours than is best for patient care.
  A7r The units use more agency/temporary staff than is best for patient care.
  A14r Staff within units work in "crisis mode" trying to do too much, too quickly.
Organizational learning A6 Staff within the units are actively doing things to improve patient safety.
  A9 Mistakes have led to positive changes within the hospital units.
  A13 After changes have been made to improve patient safety within the units, their effectiveness is evaluated by the staff.
Outcome Dimensions   
Overall perceptions of safety A10r It is just by chance that more serious mistakes don't happen within the units.
  A15 Patient safety is never sacrificed to get more work done.
  A17r We have patient safety problems within the units.
  A18 Unit procedures and systems are good at preventing errors from happening.
Frequency of event reporting D1r When an event (e.g., error) occurs that is caught and corrected before affecting the patient, how often is this reported?*
  D2r When an event (e.g., error) occurs that poses no potential harm to the patient, how often is this reported?*
  D3r When an event (e.g., error) occurs that could harm the patient, but does not, how often is this reported?*
  1. NOTE: Items marked with * include very special adoptions for a survey in Germany. For these items, additional translations closer to the original HSOPS version are available.