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Table 4 Mutually-Adjusted Prevalence Ratios (95% Confidence Intervals) For the Associations between Community Health Service Use and Socio-Demographic and Health Characteristics by Study Site

From: Equity in the delivery of community healthcare to older people: findings from 10/66 Dementia Research Group cross-sectional surveys in Latin America, China, India and Nigeria

  Model 1 * Model 2†
Site Age (per 5 year band) Male Gender Education (per level) Currently Married Living with children Assets Health
insurance
ICD-10
Depression
Dementia Physical impairment Mobility restriction
Cuba 0.97
(0.94-1.01)
0.93
(0.86-1.01)
1.06
(1.02-1.10)
1.09
(1.00-1.18)
1.05
(0.98-1.13)
0.91
(0.84-0.98)
Not applicable 1.11
(0.96-1.28)
0.87
(0.76-0.98)
1.23
(1.16-1.30)
0.83
(0.74-0.92)
Dominican
Republic
1.00
(0.96-1.04)
0.96
(0.87-1.07)
1.03
(0.98-1.08)
1.00
(0.90-1.12)
0.98
(0.89-1.07)
1.11
(1.01-1.22)
1.19
(1.07-1.32)
1.03
(0.91-1.17)
0.97
(0.83-1.12)
1.32
(1.23-1.41)
0.94
(0.84-1.05)
Puerto Rico 0.99
(0.97-1.01)
0.95
(0.91-1.00)
0.99
(0.98-1.01)
1.01
(0.96-1.06)
1.00
(0.95-1.04)
1.09
(1.03-1.15)
1.42
(1.19-1.71)
1.11
(1.04-1.18)
0.95
(0.89-1.02)
1.10
(1.07-1.14)
1.04
(0.99-1.09)
Peru urban 0.97
(0.92-1.02)
1.00
(0.89-1.11)
1.05
(0.99-1.12)
0.95
(0.85-1.07)
0.94
(0.84-1.05)
1.28
(1.14-1.44)
1.69
(1.39-2.05)
1.26
(1.07-1.48)
0.89
(0.72-1.09)
1.38
(1.07-1.48)
1.21
(1.03-1.41)
Peru rural 1.03
(0.91-1.16)
0.93
(0.70-1.22)
0.98
(0.85-1.13)
1.07
(0.80-1.43)
1.33
(0.99-1.80)
1.04
(0.78-1.38)
1.20
(0.87-1.65)
1.64
(1.09-2.47)
1.12
(0.72-1.75)
1.53
(1.25-1.87)
1.38
(0.97-1.96)
Venezuela 1.02
(0.99-1.06)
0.88
(0.81-0.96)
1.00
(0.96-1.04)
0.99
(0.91-1.07)
0.96
(0.89-1.04)
1.06
(0.98-1.14)
1.11
(1.04-1.19)
1.14
(1.03-1.27)
0.86
(0.73-1.00)
1.19
(1.14-1.25)
0.98
(0.89-1.09)
Mexico urban 1.04
(1.00-1.08)
0.89
(0.82-0.98)
1.02
(0.99-1.06)
1.06
(0.97-1.15)
1.03
(0.95-1.11)
0.95
(0.87-1.03)
1.19
(1.10-1.29)
1.03
(0.89-1.20)
0.92
(0.80-1.06)
1.12
(1.06-1.17)
1.10
(0.89-1.13)
Mexico rural 0.97
(0.93-1.02)
0.87
(0.79-0.96)
1.02
(0.96-1.08)
0.96
(0.87-1.05)
1.03
(0.94-1.13)
1.02
(0.92-1.12)
1.22
(1.12-1.34)
1.01
(0.82-1.25)
0.93
(0.78-1.12)
1.07
(1.01-1.14)
1.01
(0.89-1.09)
China urban 0.98
(0.91-1.05)
0.93
(0.80-1.08)
1.04
(0.98-1.10)
0.98
(0.84-1.16)
1.08
(0.94-1.24)
1.34
(1.16-1.55)
2.02
(1.36-3.00)
0.70
(0.16-3.00)
0.93
(0.72-1.20)
1.88
(1.70-2.08)
0.90
(0.72-1.14)
China rural 0.79
(0.60-1.03)
1.03
(0.62-1.73)
0.86
(0.64-1.16)
1.00
(0.60-1.65)
1.22
(0.66-2.25)
0.57
(0.32-1.03)
1.63
(0.84-3.16)
Too few exposed 1.62
(0.72-3.68)
3.02
(2.19-4.17)
2.44
(1.08-5.46)
India urban 1.00
(0.95-1.05)
0.86
(0.76-0.96)
1.02
(0.98-1.07)
1.46
(1.29-1.67)
1.14
(1.00-1.30)
1.44
(1.28-1.62)
1.02
(0.70-1.50)
1.20
(0.97-1.49)
0.93
(0.74-1.16)
1.51
(1.39-1.63)
1.15
(1.02-1.29)
India rural 0.95
(0.90-0.99)
1.04
(0.92-1.17)
1.03
(0.97-1.09)
1.00
(0.89-1.12)
0.97
(0.89-1.07)
0.93
(0.84-1.02)
Too few exposed 1.57
(1.47-1.67)
0.93
(0.82-1.07)
1.19
(1.13-1.26)
0.95
(0.85-1.07)
Nigeria 0.99
(0.91-1.08)
1.04
(0.84-1.29)
1.14
(1.06-1.24)
0.89
(0.72-1.11)
Not assessed Not assessed Too few exposed 2.32
(1.56-3.34)
1.16
(0.88-1.53)
2.00
(1.70-2.36)
0.94
(0.66-1.33)
Meta-analytical pooled effect 0.99
(0.98-1.00)
0.93
(0.91-0.96)
1.03 †
(1.01-1.05)
1.03 †
(0.98-1.09)
1.01
(0.99-1.04)
1.08 †
(1.00-1.17)
1.27 †
(1.16-1.38)
1.21†
(1.07-1.38)
0.93
(0.90-0.97)
1.37 †
(1.26-1.49)
1.02 †
(0.96-1.09)
Cochrane Q [df]
(p value)
18.1 [12]
(0.11)
13.4 [12]
(0.34)
27.9 [12]
(0.006)
38.5 [12]
(< 0.001)
13.9 [11]
(0.24)
81.4 [11]
(< 0.001)
28.8 [9]
(0.001)
100.0 [11]
(< 0.001)
7.8 [12]
(0.80)
244.0 [12]
(< 0.001)
38.3 [12]
(< 0.001)
I 2 Higgins, % (95% CI) 45 (0 - 73) 11 (0-51) 0 (0-60) 72 (49-85) 26 (0-64) 88 (80-92) 60 (23-80) 88 (0-93) 0 (0-60) 94 (91-96) 73 (51-85)
  1. *All estimates mutually adjusted for all other variables in model 1
  2. † Adjusted for all variables in model 1
  3. † Random effects pooled meta-analysis
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