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Table 1 Size and direction of utilization of specialists* by type and source of referral in incident and control group in the incidence quarter

From: Specialist involvement and referral patterns in ambulatory medical care for patients with dementia in Germany: results of a claims data based case-control study

   Referred to neuropsychiatry (1) Referred to radiology (2) Referred to laboratory medicine (3) Referred to other disciplines (4) Referred to all disciplines together* (5)
Row no. Type of referral incident cases controls incident cases controls incident cases controls incident cases controls incident cases controls
1 Number of referrals by all disciplines (rows 2 - 7) 528 356 281 567 354 1145 896 3760 2059 5828
2 Number (and %) of referrals by PCP 502 (95.1) 308 (86.5) 109 (38.8) 342 (60.3) 234 (66.1) 733 (64.0) 767 (85.6) 3253 (86.5) 1612 (78.3) 4636 (79.6)
3 Number (and %) of referrals by NP 8 (1.5) 5 (1.8) 136 (48.4) 35 (6.2) 29 (8.2) 8 (0.7) 13 (1.5) 15 (0.4) 186 (9.0) 63 (1.1)
4 Number (and %) of referrals by outpatient units 0 0 5 (1.8) 2 (0.4) 2 (0.6) 9 (0.8) 3 (0.3) 2 (0.1) 10 (0.5) 13 (0.2)
5 Number (and %) of referrals by radiology 0 0 1 (0.4) 5 (0.9) 5 (1.4) 6 (0.5) 2 (0.2) 6 (0.2) 8 (0.4) 17 (0.3)
6 Number (and %) of referrals by laboratory medicine 0 0 0 0 10 (2.8) 37 (3.2) 1 (0.1) 1 (0.0) 11 (0.5) 38 (0.6)
7 Number (and %) of referrals by other disciplines 18 (3.4) 43 (12.1) 30 (10.7) 183 (24.3) 74 (20.9) 352 (30.7) 110 (12.3) 483 (12.9) 233 (11.3) 1061 (18.2)
8 Number of self-referrals 105 76 6 15 6 25 306 1068 423 1184
9 Total number of utilizations (rows 1 + 8) 633 432 287 582 360 1170 1202 4828 2482 7012
10 Self-referrals in % of all utilizations (8 in % of 9) 16.6 17.6 2.1 2.6 1.7 2.1 31.5 25.5 17.0 16.9
  1. * without referrals to specialized internists; PCP = primary care physician, NP = neuropsychiatrist
  2. Reading example: 528 referrals by a physician and 105 self-referrals to neuropsychiatry were found in the incidence quarter; 502 referrals of 528 were done by a primary care physician (95.1%).
  3. The number of referrals is 3% higher than the number of referred persons (see methods chapter)