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Table 6 Hierarchical logistic regression results for maternal outcomes

From: Distance matters: a population based study examining access to maternity services for rural women

  Primary Cesarean section1
N = 43,122
Induction of Labour2
N = 44,677
Out of Hospital Deliveries3
N = 49,402
  OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI
Step 1: Maternal Risk Factors       
   Maternal Age < 16 or > 35 1.72 (1.60, 1.85) *** 1.08 (1.01, 1.15) * 0.94 (0.61, 1.45)
   Nulliparity 5.50 (5.18, 5.83) *** 1.31 (1.26, 1.37) *** 0.30 (0.20, 0.46) ***
Step 2: Ecological Determinants       
   Social vulnerability 1.09 (0.99, 1.20) 0.84 (0.78, 0.91) *** 0.49 (0.29, 0.83)**
   Proportion Aboriginal 1.25 (0.91, 1.71) 0.81 (0.63, 1.06) 4.79 (1.48, 15.53)**
Step 3: Obstetric Service Level       
   Level 1 0.67 (0.49, 0.90) ** 0.74 (0.57, 0.95) * 3.63 (1.40, 9.40) **
   Level 2 0.78 (0.61, 0.98) * 1.34 (1.13, 1.59) ** 0.92 (0.22, 3.88)
   Level 3 0.78 (0.65, 0.94) ** 1.01 (0.87, 1.17) 6.41 (3.69, 11.28) ***
   Level 4 0.89 (0.83, 0.96) ** 0.91 (0.86, 0.97) ** 1.40 (0.89, 2.20)
   Level 5 0.92 (0.85, 1.00) * 1.05 (0.98, 1.12) 0.99 (0.57, 1.73)
  1. 1. Excluding women with a previous CS
  2. 2. Excluding women with a planned CS
  3. 3. Excluding planned home deliveries with a registered midwife
  4. * P-value < .05
  5. ** P-value < .01
  6. *** P-value < .001