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Table 2 Maternal characteristics and ecological determinants by obstetric service level (N = 49,402)

From: Distance matters: a population based study examining access to maternity services for rural women

Service Level 240+ minutes from services 120-240 minutes from services 60-120 minutes from services Primary care Mixed model Specialist C/S Services P-Value
Maternal characteristics        
Average maternal age 27.23 27.25 28.65 27.81 27.67 28.65 < 0.001
% Nulliparous women 36.8 36.7 38.6 38.4 40.9 42.6 < 0.001
Antepartum hemorrhage at or > 20 wks (%) 0.8 0.8 1.9 1.1 1.2 1.0 0.037
Pregnancy induced hypertension (%) 3.8 4.7 3.8 4.4 4.5 4.5 0.732
Preexisting and/or gestational diabetes (%) 2.4 3.6 3.2 3.0 2.5 4.1 < 0.001
Smoking during pregnancy (%) 20.6 16.5 16.5 20.3 18.0 17.9 < 0.001
Alcohol use during pregnancy (%) 6.5 3.2 1.5 1.3 1.7 1.6 < 0.001
Ecological determinants        
Catchment level social vulnerability-1 to +1 [30] 0.33 0.30 0.10 0.23 - 0.002 0.12 < 0.001
Catchment proportion of Aboriginal people 0.42 0.23 0.30 0.13 0.08 0.05 < 0.001