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Table 1 Gabriel and Lang's faces of consumerism [14] in the context of healthcare.

From: Patients as healthcare consumers in the public and private sectors: a qualitative study of acupuncture in the UK

Face of consumerism Description
Consumer as chooser Makes an active and informed decision, selecting a healthcare option from a number of other options.
Consumer as communicator Use of a form of healthcare conveys social and cultural meanings to others possibly involving social status.
Consumer as explorer A particular form of healthcare is something new to be tried, amongst a universe of many possible new experiences.
Consumer as identity-seeker The choice to use a particular form of healthcare contributes to the construction of a particular social identity.
Consumer as hedonist Uses a particular form of healthcare to experience its positive emotional effects.
Consumer as victim Is vulnerable and requires protection from unscrupulous healthcare practitioners or providers who might defraud them or otherwise cause harm.
Consumer as rebel Uses a particular (unorthodox) form of healthcare as a form of resistance and rebellion against other (more mainstream) forms of healthcare.
Consumer as activist Uses a particular form of healthcare as part of a broader political movement to challenge the status quo.
Consumer as citizen Whose choice to use a particular form of healthcare is made within a community and thus has moral and social implications.