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Table 2 Estimated annual Medicaid expenditures by presence of smoker in home (2007$)

From: Medicaid expenditures for children living with smokers

  Unadjusted Adjusted a
  Smoker in House Difference Smoker in House Difference b
  No Yes (95% CI) No Yes (95% CI)
Overall Expenditures c $799 $1012 $213 (-56, 580) $862 $1012 $149 (-68, 427)
   Inpatient 360 450 90 (-66, 328) 380 450 70 (-74, 283)
   Emergency Dept. 45 58 13 (6, 22)*** 47 58 10 (3, 18)**
   Ambulatoryc 226 246 20 (-21, 69) 248 246 3 (-41, 56)
   Prescription 98 148 51 (8, 111)* 113 148 35 (-3, 87)
   Dental 54 71 17 (-2, 44) 58 71 13 (-4, 35)
Well-child 77 73 -4 (-12, 6) 81 73 -8 (-15, 1)
  1. a Adjusts for child's sex, race, and ethnicity, age-adjusted well child visits (except where well-child visits are the outcome), urban/rural location, Census region, mother's age, presence of both parents in the home, household poverty status, and highest education achieved by either parent.
  2. b Estimates of the difference in predicted expenditures for children observed to be living with smokers when smokers are or are not present. The 95% confidence interval is based on the confidence interval for the coefficient on having a smoker in the house.
  3. cExcludes well-child care, chiropractic, and vision care.
  4. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001