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Table 5 Assessment of Relations with Other Variables Validity: Correlation of CRU Items by Increasing Levels of Instrumental, Symbolic, and Overall Research Utilization

From: Validation of the conceptual research utilization scale: an application of the standards for educational and psychological testing in healthcare

CRU Item Instrumental Research Utilization Symbolic Research Utilization Overall Research Utilization
  Pearson r Level of Research Use1 Pearson r Level of Research Use1 Pearson r Level of Research Use1
   1 2 3 4 5   1 2 3 4 5   1 2 3 4 5
1 .295** 2.00 2.54 3.33 3.47 3.93 .369** 2.36 3.24 3.39 3.82 4.13 .332** 1.67 2.81 3.05 3.57 3.98
2 .263** 2.80 2.85 3.25 3.54 3.93 .361** 2.68 3.27 3.41 3.81 4.17 .279** 2.67 3.06 3.19 3.85 3.97
3 .247** 2.40 2.54 2.94 3.21 3.63 .320** 2.36 2.94 3.12 3.47 3.86 .232** 2.33 3.00 2.86 3.28 3.64
4 .233** 2.40 3.00 3.17 3.44 3.79 .339** 2.52 3.15 3.36 3.67 4.04 .278** 2.67 2.87 2.99 3.52 3.84
5 .191** 3.00 3.31 3.37 3.67 3.93 .318** 2.64 3.39 3.57 3.88 4.15 .317** 3.00 3.19 3.05 3.68 4.07
Scale Score .294** 2.52 2.85 3.21 3.46 3.84 .406** 2.51 3.20 3.37 3.73 4.07 .342** 2.47 2.99 3.02 3.53 3.90
  1. 1 = 1'never'; 2'rarely'; 3 'occasionally'; 4 'frequently'; 5 'almost always'
  2. ** p < 0.01