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Table 3 Association of enrolment in the DMP with patient reported process and outcome indicators, results of the logistic regression analyses

From: The disease management program for type 2 diabetes in Germany enhances process quality of diabetes care - a follow-up survey of patient's experiences

  Baseline Follow-up
Process indicators Odds Ratio (95% confidence interval) Significant confounders R2 Odds Ratio (95% confidence interval) Significant confounders R2
Participation in education course for diabetes 3.4 (2.5-4.6) diabetes duration (longer) 0.173 2.1 (1.5-3.0) diabetes duration (longer) 0.118
≥4 encounters/year with physician 3.3 (2.2-5.1) None 0.097 3.1 (1.8-5.3) None 0.071
Annual referral to an ophthalmologist 3.4 (2.2-5.4) Depr. score (lower) 0.134 n.s. None 0.066
≥1 referral to diabetologist/year (GP patients only) n.s. Age (younger) 0.124 n.s. None 0.024
Specialty of the attending physician: diabetologist 2.0 (1.4-2.9) diabetes duration (longer) 0.090 n.s. None 0.048
Annual foot examination 3.1 (2.2-4.4) None 0.083 3.2 (2.0-4.9) None 0.082
Possession of a diabetes passport 2.4 (1.7-3.2) diabetes duration (longer) 0.110 2.1 (1.5-3.0) None 0.058
Nutritional advice given by physician n.s. None 0.021 n.s. None 0.032
Physician advice given on exercising n.s. Age (younger) 0.071 n.s. None 0.030
Agreement on target value for GHb n.s. Age (younger) 0.092 n.s. Age (younger) 0.091
Agreement upon target values for blood pressure n.s. None 0.015 n.s. None 0.023
Participation in education course for hypertension n.s. None 0.025 n.s. None 0.018
Outcome Indicators
Self-rated health (S-rh) (low) n.s. Depr. score (higher) 0.165 n.s. Depr. score (higher), S-rh at t0 (lower) 0.200
Satisfaction with medical treatment (low) n.s. None 0.028 n.s. Satisf. with med. treatment t0 (lower) 0.119
Burden of therapy (high) n.s. None 0.125 n.s. None 0.078
Self-rated ability to cope with disease (high) n.s. Depr. score (lower), language skills (better) 0.120 n.s. Depr. score (lower) 0.017
Self-reported therapy adherence (S-rta) (high) n.s. Age (older), language skills (better) 0.080 n.s. S-rta at t0 (higher), Depr. score (lower) 0.138
GHb [≥ 7.5% (≥ 8.5% for age 75+)] n.s. diabetes duration (longer) 0.070 n.s. GHb level at t0 (high) 0.365
Blood pressure (≥ 140/90 mm Hg) n.s. None 0.052 n.s. Blood pressure at t0 (high) 0.231
Body mass index (≥ 30 kg/m2) n.s. Age (younger), sex (female) 0.067 n.s. BMI at t0 (high) 0.726
Diabetic foot lesions (Dfl) n.s. Depr. score (higher) 0.073 n.s. Dfl at t0, depr. score (higher) 0.193
Present symptoms of diabetes n.s. Depr. score (higher) 0.144 n.s. Depr. score (higher) 0.117
Smoking n.s. Age (younger) 0.157 n.s. Status as smoker at t0 0.808
Risk of hypoglycemia (high) n.s. None 0.079 n.s. None 0.163
Insulin treatment n.s. diabetes duration (longer) 0.227 n.s. Insulin treatment at t0 0.839
Increased cardiovascular risk* n.s. Education (lower) 0.097 n.s Increased cardiovascular risk at t0 0.262
Knowing GHb test results 2.8 (2.0-4.0) age (younger), language skills (better), diabetes duration (longer) 0.186 n.s. Knowing GHb test results at t0 0.289
Knowing blood pressure test results n.s. None 0.034 n.s. Knowing blood pressure at t0 0.216
  1. Multivariate logistic regression analyses. Enrolled patients compared to not enrolled patients adjusted for age, sex, education, duration of diabetes disease, German language skills and depressive symptoms. In addition outcome indicators at follow-up controlled for baseline values (t0). Direction of association is indicated in brackets; p ≤ 0.001 for all odds ratios shown as numerical values; n.s. = statistically not significant (p > 0.001). *Increased cardiovascular risk = [GHb ≥ 7.5% (≥ 8.5% for age 75+) and/or blood pressure ≥ 140/90 mm Hg]; Depr. = Depression