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Table 1 Descriptive analysis of patient reported process and outcome indicators at baseline and follow-up

From: The disease management program for type 2 diabetes in Germany enhances process quality of diabetes care - a follow-up survey of patient's experiences

Process indicators DMP-patients (baseline) Patients not enrolled (baseline) p(baseline) DMP-patients (follow-up) Patients not enrolled (follow-up) p(follow-up)
Participation in training program for diabetes 322 (72.7%) 222 (45.1%) p ≤ 0.001 250 (71.8%) 181 (52.8%) p ≤ 0.001
≥4 encounters/year with physician 398 (98.8%) 361 (75.5%) p ≤ 0.001 321 (92.5%) 280 (82.8%) p ≤ 0.001
Annual referral to an ophthalmologist 411 (93.0%) 380 (78.2%) p ≤ 0.001 318 (92.4%) 281 (83.9%) p ≤ 0.001
≥1 annual referral to a diabetologist (GP patients only) 43 (13.1%) 44 (10.7%) n.s. 24 (9.6%) 26 (9.4%) n.s.
Specialty of the attending physician: diabetologist 113 (25.5%) 73 (14.9%) p ≤ 0.001 100 (28.6%) 64 (18.6%) p ≤ 0.01
Annual foot examination 380 (86.2%) 324 (66.9%) p ≤ 0.001 307 (88.2%) 246 (73.2%) p ≤ 0.001
Possession of a diabetes passport 345 (78.1%) 287 (59.1%) p ≤ 0.001 276 (79.3%) 210 (61.8%) p ≤ 0.001
Nutritional advice given by physician 116 (29.6%) 98 (23.0%) p ≤ 0.05 71 (25.2%) 69 (26.7%) n.s.
Physician advice given on exercising 116 (32.9%) 80 (22.5%) p ≤ 0.01 79 (33.1%) 66 (30.1%) n.s.
Agreement upon target value for GHb 316 (77.3%) 295 (72.8%) p ≤ 0.05 244 (79.0%) 219 (79.3%) n.s.
Agreement upon target values for blood pressure 326 (78.2%) 339 (76.9%) n.s. 255 (76.6%) 232 (76.6%) n.s.
Participation in education course for hypertension 50 (11.3%) 33 (6.7%) p ≤ 0.05 43 (12.3%) 33 (9.7%) n.s.
Outcome indicators
Low self-rated health (1-4 on a 6-point scale) 171 (38.6%) 215 (43.7%) n.s. 149 (42.6%) 147 (42.6%) n.s.
(1-4 on a 6-point scale) 64 (14.5%) 74 (15.4%) n.s. 52 (14.8%) 60 (17.5%) n.s.
High burden of therapy (5-6 on a 6-point scale) 3 (0.7%) 11 (2.2%) n.s. 4 (1.1%) 4 (1.2%) n.s.
High self-rated ability to cope with disease (5-6 on a 6-point scale) 419 (94.8%) 445 (91.9%) n.s. 319 (92.2%) 319 (93.3%) n.s.
High self-reported therapy adherence (5-6 on a 6-point scale) 323 (72.9%) 349 (70.9%) n.s. 244 (69.7%) 240 (70.0%) n.s.
Mean GHb (%) 6.9 (SD: 0.9; n = 330) 6.9 (SD: 1.3; n = 287) n.s. 6.9 (SD: 0.9; n = 245) 6.8 (SD:1.1; n = 200) n.s.
high GHb [> 7.5% (> 8.5% for age 75+)] 72 (21.8%) 52 (18.1%) n.s. 46 (18.8%) 35 (17.5%) n.s.
Mean blood pressure (mm Hg) 132/79 (SD: 14.0/8.7; n = 360) 135/80 (SD: 14.9/9.1; n = 398/397) p ≤ 0.05 133/80 (SD: 13.9/8.2 n = 293) 133.9/81 (SD: 14.3/9.5 n = 276) n.s.
high blood pressure (≥ 140/90 mm Hg) 137 (38.1%) 186 (46.7) p ≤ 0.05 129 (44%) 116 (42%) n.s.
Mean body mass index (kg/m2) 29.7 (SD: 4.8; n = 440) 29.4 (SD: 5.3; n = 482) n.s. 29.5 (SD: 9.1 n = 351) 28.3 (SD: 10.9 n = 342) n.s.
high BMI (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) 188 (42.7%) 191 (39.6%) n.s. 149 (42.5%) 137 (40.1%) n.s.
Diabetic foot lesions 45 (10.2%) 49 (10.0%) n.s. 29 (8.3%) 29 (8.5%) n.s.
Present symptoms of diabetes 153 (36.1%) 173 (35.8%) n.s. 108 (31.1%) 126 (36.8%) n.s.
Current smoker 74 (16.7%) 82 (16.6%) n.s. 56 (16.0%) 61 (17.7%) n.s.
Hypoglycemia in the past 12 months 26 (5.9%) 29 (6.0%) n.s. 23 (6.6%) 12 (3.6%) n.s.
Insulin treatment 153 (34.5%) 129 (26.3%) p ≤ 0.01 130 (37%) 107 (31%) n.s.
Increased cardiovascular risk [GHb ≥ 7.5% (≥ 8.5% for age 75+) and/or blood pressure ≥ 140/90 mm Hg] 186 (56.9%) 221 (66.2%) ≤0.05 147 (56.5%) 136 (60.2%) n.s.
Not knowing GHb test results 72 (16.3%) 166 (33.9%) p ≤ 0.001 59 (16.9%) 97 (28.3%) p ≤ 0.001
Not knowing blood pressure values 39 (8.8%) 50 (10.1%) p ≤ 0.05 13 (3.7%) 30 (8.7%) p ≤ 0.01
  1. n.s. = statistically not significant (p > 0.05)