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Table 4 Adjusted hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for admission to hospital or long-term care institution or death (N = 565)

From: Impact of home and community-based services on hospitalisation and institutionalisation among individuals eligible for long-term care insurance in Japan

Analysis 1: The overall effect of home and community-based services Analysis 2: The effects of each type of home and community-based service
  Adjusted HR 95% CI p-value   Adjusted HR 95% CI p-value
Sex    0.007 Sex    0.006
   Male 1       Male 1   
   Female 0.749 0.607-0.924      Female 0.742 0.600-0.917  
Age* 1    0.003 Age* 1    0.001
   < 75 1       < 75 1   
   75 - 80 1.237 0.893-1.713 0.201    75 - 80 1.231 0.884-1.715 0.219
   80 - 85 1.406 1.023-1.934 0.036    80 - 85 1.436 1.035-1.991 0.030
   85 - 90 1.435 1.041-1.979 0.027    85 - 90 1.526 1.103-2.111 0.011
    90 2.168 1.464-3.212 0.000     90 2.261 1.514-3.378 0.000
Eligibility level* 1    0.014 Eligibility level* 1    0.000
   Support level*2 1       Support level*2 1   
   Care level 1·2*3 1.177 0.946-1.465 0.143    Care level 1·2*3 1.314 1.057-1.634 0.014
   Care level 3·4·5 1.769 1.199-2.611 0.004    Care level 3·4·5 2.154 1.450-3.199 0.000
Living area* 1    0.047 Living area* 1    0.045
   Town A 1       Town A 1   
   Town B 0.804 0.648-0.997      Town B 0.801 0.645-0.995  
Year of the first certification 0.946 0.902-0.992 0.022 Year of the first certification 0.942 0.900-0.986 0.011
Income level for determining premiums* 1   Not Selected   Income level for determining premiums* 1   Not Selected  
Average monthly outpatient medical expenditures (yen)    0.000 Average monthly outpatient medical expenditures (yen)    0.000
   Low: 0 - 24,000 1       Low: 0 - 24,000 1   
   Middle: 24,000 - 53,000 1.226 0.947-1.587 0.122    Middle: 24,000 - 53,000 1.191 0.920-1.542 0.185
   High: 53,000 2.138 1.663-2.749 0.000    High: 53,000 2.149 1.668-2.769 0.000
Average monthly total home and community-based services expenditures (yen)* 4    0.005 Day care* 5    0.088
   0 1       Not use 1   
   Low: 189 - 18,000 0.700 0.526-0.931 0.014    Use 0.821 0.655-1.029  
   Middle: 18,000 - 36,000 0.587 0.436-0.791 0.000 Respite care* 6    0.013
   High: 36,000 0.722 0.542-0.960 0.025    Not use 1   
  Akaike' s Information Criteria(AIC) = 4434.401    Use 0.714 0.547-0.931  
     Rental services for assistive devices* 7   0.011
        Not use 1   
        Use 0.703 0.537-0.921  
     Home-help* 8   Not Selected  
     Visiting nurse* 7   Not Selected  
     Management & guidance* 7   Not Selected  
     Day rehabilitation* 7   Not Selected  
      AIC = 4423.682
  1. Outcome variable was the number of months from the first certification of being eligible for long-term care insurance benefits until hospitalisation, institutionalisation, death or censoring in both Analysis 1 and 2. All years are fiscal years; April to March.
  2. *1 Data when the insured individuals are certified being eligible for long-term care insurance benefits for the first time.
  3. *2 After 2006, Support level means Support level 1.
  4. *3 After 2006, Care level 1 includes Support level 2.
  5. *4 Consists of expenditures of Home-help, Home-visit bathing, Visiting nurse, Management & guidance, Day care, Day rehabilitation, Respite care and Rental services for assistive devices.
  6. *5 After 2006, "Preventive care" and "Services for the elderly with dementia" are included.
  7. *6 Consists of regular and medically-related Respite care. After 2006, "Preventive care" is included.
  8. *7 After 2006, "Preventive care" is included.
  9. *8 Includes Home-visit bathing service. After 2006, "Preventive care" and "Night care" are included.