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Table 2 Cohort characteristics (N = 565)

From: Impact of home and community-based services on hospitalisation and institutionalisation among individuals eligible for long-term care insurance in Japan

   N %
Sex Male 195 34.5
  Female 370 65.5
  <75 97 17.2
     <65    4    0.7
     65-70    31    5.5
Age* 1    70-75    62    11.0
  75-80 125 22.1
  80-85 166 29.4
  85-90 126 22.3
  90 51 9.0
  Support level*9 247 43.7
Eligibility level* 1 Care level 1·2*10 272 48.1
  Care level 3·4·5 46 8.1
Living area* 1 Town A 383 67.8
  Town B 182 32.2
  Low*11 276 48.8
Income levels for determining premiums* 1 Middle*12 210 37.2
  High*13 79 14.0
  2000 152 26.9
  2001 37 6.5
  2002 58 10.3
  2003 56 9.9
Year of the first certification 2004 54 9.6
  2005 56 9.9
  2006 75 13.3
  2007 65 11.5
  2008 12 2.1
  Low: 0-24,000 184 32.6
Average monthly outpatient medical expenditures (yen) Middle: 24,000-53,000 189 33.5
  High: 53,000 192 34.0
  0 168 29.7
Average monthly total home and community-based services expenditures (yen) *2 Low: 189-18,000 132 23.4
  Middle: 18,000-36,000 131 23.2
  High: 36,000 134 23.7
  0 400 70.8
Average monthly home-visit type services expenditures (yen)* 3 Low: 36-9,000 57 10.1
  Middle: 9,000-20,000 55 9.7
  High: 20,000 53 9.4
  0 290 51.3
Average monthly day-care type services expenditures (yen)* 4 Low: 189-16,000 88 15.6
  Middle: 16,000-28,000 93 16.5
  High: 28,000 94 16.6
Each home and community-based service use or not    
Home-help* 5 Use 145 25.7
Visiting nurse* 6 Use 51 9.0
Management & guidance* 6 Use 15 2.7
Day care* 7 Use 230 40.7
Day rehabilitation* 6 Use 66 11.7
Respite care* 8 Use 108 19.1
Rental services for assistive devices* 6 Use 87 15.4
Outcome    
  No event before 29 Feb.2008 155 27.4
Censor Move out 4 0.7
  Subtotal 159 28.1
  Hospitalisation 327 57.9
Event Institutionalisation 55 9.7
  Death 24 4.2
  Subtotal 406 71.9
  1. *1 Data when the insured person is certified as being eligible for long-term care insurance benefits for the first time.
  2. *2 Consists of expenditures of Home-help, Home-visit bathing, Visiting nurse, Management & guidance, Day care, Day rehabilitation, Respite care and Rental service for assistive devices.
  3. *3 Consists of expenditures of Home-help, Home-visit bathing, Visiting nurse and Management & guidance.
  4. *4 Consists of expenditures of Day care and Day rehabilitation.
  5. *5 Includes Home-visit bathing. After 2006, "Preventive care" and "Night care" are included.
  6. *6 After 2006, "Preventive care" is included.
  7. *7 After 2006, "Preventive care" and "Services for the elderly with dementia" are included.
  8. *8 Consists of regular and medically-related Respite care. After 2006, "Preventive care" is included.
  9. *9 After 2006, Support level means Support level 1.
  10. *10 After 2006, Care level 1 includes Support level 2.
  11. *11 Both individual and household exempt from community tax.
  12. *12 Individual exempt from community tax, household pays community tax.
  13. *13 Individual pays community tax.
  14. All years are fiscal years; April to March.