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Table 1 Characteristics of study site, Hokkaido and all of Japan

From: Impact of home and community-based services on hospitalisation and institutionalisation among individuals eligible for long-term care insurance in Japan

   2001 2007
   Study site Hokkaido Japan Study site Hokkaido Japan
Population* 1   10,013 5,667,024 126,478,672 9,104 5,571,770 127,066,178
Proportion of the aged 65 and above (%)* 1   28.0 19.0 18.3 33.0 23.0 21.6
Proportion of the population aged 70 and above who
are enrolled in Citizen's Health Insurance (%)* 2
  - - - 80.5 - 82.3
  Outpatient medical expenditures 22,943 21,971 21,812 23,941 22,275 23,030
Average monthly expenditures per individual
enrolled under the medical care for the
elderly program (yen)* 3
Inpatient medical expenditures 38,011 37,208 26,761 39,628 45,607 33,683
  Total medical expenditures 60,954 59,179 48,573 63,568 67,882 56,713
  Support level*6 2.7 (21.0) 1.9 (14.0) 1.7 (13.1) 3.4 (18.3) 2.1 (12.2) 2.0 (12.2)
  Care level 1*7 3.5 (26.4) 4.3 (32.0) 3.8 (29.3) 4.6 (24.8) 5.8 (34.0) 5.1 (30.8)
Proportion of the individuals certified as
being eligible for LTCI benefits among
Care level 2 2.4 (18.0) 2.5 (18.6) 2.4 (18.9) 3.0 (16.3) 2.9 (17.2) 2.9 (17.7)
individuals aged ≥65 years according to
eacheligibility level (%) and its distribution (%) *4
Care level 3 1.6 (12.3) 1.5 (11.4) 1.7 (13.0) 2.6 (13.9) 2.4 (14.3) 2.6 (15.6)
  Care level 4 1.5 (11.7) 1.5 (11.4) 1.7 (13.0) 2.1 (11.4) 1.9 (11.1) 2.1 (12.7)
  Care level 5 1.4 (10.6) 1.7 (12.6) 1.6 (12.7) 2.8 (15.4) 1.9 (11.2) 1.8 (11.0)
  Total 13.1 (100) 13.3 (100) 12.9 (100) 18.4 (100) 17.0 (100) 16.5 (100)
  Total amount of home and community-based services 36,017 42,190 46,870 35,042 42,383 49,018
  Total amount of institutional services 295,525 360,799 347,202 266,367 270,556 269,441
  Total amount of long-term care services 144,532 123,423 109,802 103,139 98,776 90,554
  Home and community-based services       
  Home-help*8 31,490 45,164 53,396 40,300 40,805 48,866
  Home-visit bathing*9 0 45,376 48,715 44,962 52,359 56,356
  Visiting nurse*9 43,964 37,240 42,223 24,264 37,751 41,867
  Visiting rehabilitation*9 n/a 21,277 21,470 n/a 24,276 25,264
  Management & guidance*9 13,651 10,098 9,773 10,882 9,229 10,067
Average monthly expenditures per recipient Day care*10 35,261 42,566 52,608 34,242 53,142 67,279
of specific care service (yen)* 5 Day rehabilitation*9 39,469 57,469 68,512 36,577 58,584 67,341
  Respite care*11 106,800 93,959 83,162 80,232 82,583 87,963
  Rental services for assistive devices*9 12,359 13,461 14,349 12,202 12,163 14,858
  Small scale community-based multiple services centres*9 n/a n/a n/a n/a 168,732 173,167
  Institutional services       
  Group homes for the elderly with dementia*12 0 239,865 238,750 253,656 261,843 262,342
  Residential care facilities for the elderly requiring care*13 189,171 157,917 185,640 146,515 153,129 176,692
  Nursing homes*14 273,710 324,612 329,049 262,478 253,480 260,221
  Health services facilities for the elderly 282,363 343,379 340,590 247,217 275,097 274,100
  Sanatorium-type medical care facilities 378,974 458,238 443,415 388,618 397,802 387,194
  1. *1 Data from Japan Geographic Data Center, "Jyumin Kihon Daicho Jinko Yoran (Population summary of basic residents' register)" at the end of the each fiscal year.
  2. *2 Proportion of the population aged 70 and above who are enrolled in Citizen's Health Insurance (%) = The population of the Citizen's Health Insurance member aged 70 and above / The total population of the persons aged 70 and above. Data at the end of the fiscal year 2006 is used.
  3. *3 Data from All-Japan Federation of National Health Insurance Organizations, "Kokumin-Kenko-Hoken no Jittai (Situation of Citizen's Health Insurance)". Data for study site, Hokkaido and Japan for 2002 is substituted for those for 2001. Data for "Sorachi Chubu Koiki Rengo", which includes study site, is substituted for the study site.
  4. *4 Proportion of the individuals certified as being eligible for LTCI benefits among individuals aged ≥65 years (%) = the number of the all aged individuals certified as long-term care / the number of the insured individuals aged 65 and above. Data for Hokkaido and Japan from Japan Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, "Report on the Status of the Long-term Care Insurance Project" at the end of the each fiscal year.
  5. *5 Data for study site for 2007 excludes March 2008. Data for Hokkaido and Japan from Japan Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Ministry Secretariat, Statistics and Information Department, "Survey of Long-term Care Benefit Expenditures". Data for Hokkaido for 2002 is substituted for that for 2001.
  6. *6 Support level for 2007 means Support level 1.
  7. *7 Care level 1 for 2007 includes Support level 2.
  8. *8 "Preventive care" and "Night care" are included for 2007.
  9. *9 "Preventive care" is included for 2007.
  10. *10 "Preventive care" and "Services for the elderly with dementia" are included for 2007.
  11. *11 Consists of regular and medically-related Respite care. "Preventive care" is included for 2007.
  12. *12 Counted as institutional services in this study. "Preventive care" is included for 2007.
  13. *13 Counted as institutional services in this study. "Preventive care" and "Community-based residential care facilities for the elderly requiring care" are included for 2007.
  14. *14 "Community-based welfare facilities for the elderly requiring care" are included for 2007.
  15. All years are fiscal years; April to March.