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Table 1 Demographic Characteristics of All Newly Licensed Dentists, U.S.-Trained Dentists, and Foreign-Trained Dentists in Washington State

From: Exploring the potential for foreign-trained dentists to address workforce shortages and improve access to dental care for vulnerable populations in the United States: a case study from Washington State

Measure All Dentists U.S.- Trained Dentists Foreign-Trained Dentists Significance Testing between U.S.-Trained and Foreign-Trained Dentists (α = 0.05)
Individual-Level Characteristics*     
Dental school training     n/a
   Foreign-trained dentist 139 (20.2) n/a n/a  
   U.S.-trained dentist 549 (79.8) n/a n/a  
Age (years)     P = 0.865
   Mean ± Standard Deviation 34.7 ± 8.4 34.7 ± 9.0 34.8 ± 5.1  
Sex, n (%)     P < 0.0001
   Female 258 (37.5) 177 (32.2) 81 (58.3)  
Method of licensing, n (%)     P < 0.0001
   Examination 443 (69.5) 327 (65.5) 116 (84.1)  
   Endorsement 194 (30.5) 172 (34.5) 22 (15.9)  
Participated in the Medicaid     P = 0.011
Program     
   Yes 143 (20.8) 125 (22.8) 18 (12.9)  
Practice-Level Characteristics**     
Practice is in a dental Health     P = 0.726
Professional Shortage Area     
   Yes 66 (46.2) 57 (45.6) 9 (50.0)  
Rurality of practice     P = 0.683
   Urban 114 (79.7) 99 (79.2) 15 (83.3)  
   Rural 29 (20.3) 26 (20.8) 3 (16.7)  
  1. * Includes all dentists in the study population (N = 688)
  2. **Includes only dentists in the study population with a Washington State Medicaid provider number (n = 143)