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Table 4 Univariate analysis, Mean score (SD) of each tool across subgroups of respondents, in 1546 doctors in Geneva, Switzerland, 2007.

From: What doctors think about the impact of managed care tools on quality of care, costs, autonomy, and relations with patients

  Use of guidelines
(N = 1491)
Gate-keeping
(N = 1499)
Managed care network
(N = 1490)
Second opinion
(N = 1506)
Pay by salary
(N = 1480)
Pay for performance
(N = 1487)
Utilization review
(N = 1500)
Selective contracting
(N = 1506)
Sex p = 0.91 p = 0.63 p = 0.79 p = 0.001 P = 0.001 p = 0.004 p = 0.83 p = 0.55
   men 3.18 (0.80) 2.75 (0.91) 2.77 (0.82) 2.70 (0.81) 2.18 (0.93) 1.95 (0.82) 1.77 (0.59) 1.57 (0.59)
   women 3.19 (0.81) 2.77 (0.86) 2.76 (0.79) 2.56 (0.81) 2.34 (0.93) 1.82 (0.78) 1.78 (0.58) 1.55 (0.58)
Age p < 0.001 p < 0.001 p < 0.001 p < 0.001 p < 0.001 p = 0.023 p = 0.29 p < 0.001
   up to 35 3.37 (0.65) 3.07 (0.77) 2.99 (0.72) 2.53 (0.75) 2.71 (0.87) 2.01 (0.85) 1.82 (0.55) 1.71 (0.64)
   36-50 3.28 (0.76) 2.79 (0.86) 2.80 (0.81) 2.60 (0.78) 2.29 (0.95) 1.88 (0.79) 1.76 (0.58) 1.54 (0.56)
   over 50 2.99 (0.87) 2.57 (0.92) 2.62 (0.82) 2.76 (0.86) 1.96 (0.84) 1.86 (0.80) 1.77 (0.61) 1.52 (0.56)
Practice setting p < 0.001 p < 0.001 p < 0.001 p = 0.016 p < 0.001 p < 0.001 p = 0.002 p < 0.001
   private practice 3.02 (0.83) 2.59 (0.93) 2.59 (0.79) 2.67 (0.85) 1.88 (0.80) 1.78 (0.75) 1.74 (0.59) 1.46 (0.50)
   public in training 3.38 (0.70) 3.03 (0.78) 2.99 (0.76) 2.57 (0.75) 2.73 (0.89) 2.01 (0.84) 1.80 (0.57) 1.68 (0.63)
   public senior 3.44 (0.75) 2.78 (0.74) 3.03 (0.79) 2.77 (0.80) 2.60 (0.85) 2.22 (0.86) 1.91 (0.59) 1.76 (0.71)
Specialty p < 0.001 p < 0.001 p < 0.001 p = 0.004 p < 0.001 p = 0.026 p < 0.001 p = 0.004
   primary care 3.28 (0.78) 3.25 (0.76) 2.98 (0.77) 2.70 (0.80) 2.36 (0.92) 1.87 (0.76) 1.72 (0.53) 1.59 (0.56)
   paediatricians 3.36 (0.71) 2.89 (0.85) 2.75 (0.78) 2.53 (0.81) 2.32 (0.91) 1.87 (0.79) 1.71 (0.53) 1.52 (0.58)
   psychiatrists 2.86 (0.83) 2.40 (0.81) 2.65 (0.78) 2.77 (0.81) 2.22 (0.90) 1.81 (0.76) 1.75 (0.56) 1.46 (0.48)
   technical specialists 3.19 (0.81) 2.53 (0.87) 2.64 (0.81) 2.59 (0.83) 2.08 (0.94) 2.00 (0.91) 1.88 (0.65) 1.62 (0.68)
   internal medicine specialists 3.27 (0.75) 2.60 (0.85) 2.71 (0.82) 2.57 (0.80) 2.26 (0.95) 1.91 (0.76) 1.75 (0.58) 1.54 (0.51)
Managed care network* p = 0.49 p < 0.001 p < 0.001 p = 0.015 p = 0.002 p = 0.39 p = 0.19 p = 0.42
   yes 3.15 (0.71) 3.29 (0.72) 3.14 (0.68) 2.79 (0.76) 2.04 (0.83) 1.85 (0.73) 1.72 (0.59) 1.53 (0.51)
   no 3.19 (0.81) 2.69 (0.88) 2.72 (0.81) 2.63 (0.82) 2.27 (0.94) 1.91 (0.82) 1.78 (0.59) 1.57 (0.59)
  1. *among private practitioners