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Table 2 Absolute numbers and proportions of negative perceptions for each managed care tool and its impacts*, in 1546 doctors in Geneva, Switzerland, 2007.

From: What doctors think about the impact of managed care tools on quality of care, costs, autonomy, and relations with patients

  Very negative or rather negative impact on
  Professional autonomy
N (%)
Relation with patients
N (%)
Quality of care
N (%)
Control of health care costs
N (%)
Use of guidelines 536 (35.6) 437 (29.0) 293 (19.5) 269 (18.0)
Gate-keeping 938 (61.9) 675 (44.6) 569 (37.7) 419 (27.8)
Managed care network 908 (60.3) 626 (41.7) 479 (31.9) 301 (20.1)
Second opinion 1024 (67.6) 803 (53.0) 458 (30.3) 547 (36.1)
Pay by salary 1009 (66.8) 856 (56.8) 943 (62.7) 618 (41.6)
Pay for performance 1326 (87.9) 1228 (81.7) 1162 (77.3) 721 (48.4)
Utilization review 1448 (95.3) 1352 (89.1) 1268 (83.7) 713 (47.4)
Selective contracting 1475 (96.8) 1419 (93.2) 1398 (91.9) 837 (55.4)
  1. * Percentages of valid responses (maximum missing is 61)