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Table 4 Descriptive statistics of survey on patient safety culture and benchmark scores

From: Validity and reliability of Turkish version of "Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture" and perception of patient safety in public hospitals in Turkey

Ten factors subscales and survey items Score
Benchmark score
Teamwork within units (Cronbach's α = 0.83) 70 (6)# 75
   a. People support one another between units 65(6) 81*
   b. When a lot of work needs to be done quickly, we work together as a team to get the work done 75(5) 81*
   c. In all units, people treat each other with respect 72(3) 73
   d. When one area in this unit gets really busy, others help out 70(9) 63
Management Expectations and Actions Promoting Patient Safety (Cronbach's α = 0.72) 44 (6)§ 70*
   a. Management says a good word when he/she sees a job done according to established resident safety procedures 37(5)§ 68*
   b. Management seriously considers staff suggestions for improving resident safety 41(7) 72*
   c. Whenever pressure builds up, my manager wants us to work faster, even if it means taking shortcuts (R) 37(5) 67*
   d. My manager overlooks resident safety problems that happen over and over (R) 60(8) 71*
Teamwork across units and Management support for resident safety (Cronbach's α = 0.80) 40 (8) 62*
   a. Management provides a work climate that promotes resident safety 40(12)†‡ 72*
   b. The actions of management show that resident safety is a top priority 37(6)‡ 65*
   c. Management seems interested in resident safety only after an adverse event happens 32(4) 50*
   d. There is good cooperation among units that need to work together 46(12) 34
   e. Units work well together to provide the best care for residents 40(6) 47
   f. Units do not coordinate well with each other (R) 57(2) 51*
Organizational learning (Cronbach's α = 0.68) 41 (7)# 66*
   a. We are actively doing things to improve resident safety 51(5)‡ 77*
   b. Staff in this facility work longer hours than is best for resident care 21(4) 48*
   c. After we make changes to improve resident safety, we evaluate their effectiveness 52(7)‡ § 62*
Overall perceptions of safety (Cronbach's α = 0,57) 62 (7)# 56
   a. Resident safety is never sacrificed to get more work done 67(7)† 53*
   b. Our procedures and systems are good at preventing errors from happening 67(11) 55
   c. It is just by chance that more serious mistakes don't happen around here 57(5)§ 52
   d. We have patient safety problems in this facility (R) 57(5) 64*
Feedback and communication openness about error (Cronbach's α = 0.81) 38 (6)§# 59*
   a. We are given feedback about changes put into place based on event reports 30(4)§ 53*
   b. We are informed about errors that happen in the units 47(9) 59*
   c. In this facility, we discuss ways to prevent errors from happening again 42(6)§ 65*
   a. Staff will freely speak up if they see something that may negatively affect resident care 43(1)† 72*
   b. Staff feel free to question the decisions or actions of those with more authority 19(3) 46*
   c. Staff are afraid to ask questions when something does not seem right (R) 47(4) 60*
Frequency of events reported (Cronbach's α = 0.86) 15 (4) 54*
   a. When a mistake is made, but is caught and corrected before affecting the resident, how often is this reported? 13(2) 47*
   b. When a mistake is made, but has no potential to harm the resident, how often is this reported? 14(3) 50*
   c. When a mistake is made that could harm the resident, but does not, how often is this reported? 18(4) 67*
Staffing (Cronbach's α = 0.63) 44 (9) 48
   a. We have enough staff to handle the workload 36(19)† § 45
   c. We use more agency/temporary staff than is best for resident care 76(9) 61*
   d. We work in "crisis mode" trying to do too much, too quickly (R) 21(4) 40*
Handoffs and transitions (Cronbach's α = 0.72) 54 (4)† ‡ 35*
   a. Things "fall between the cracks" when transferring residents from one unit to another (R) 44(6) 29*
   b. Important resident care information is often lost during shift changes (R) 59(3) 44*
   c. Problems often occur in the exchange of information across units (R) 42(5) 32*
   d. It is often unpleasant to work with staff from other units (R) 46(7) 56*
   e. Shift changes are problematic for residents in this facility (R) 67(1) 36*
Non-punitive response to error (Cronbach's α = 0.71) 24 (4) 37*
   a. Staff feel like their mistakes are held against them (R) 14(1) 44*
   b. When an event is reported, it feels like the person is being written up, not the problem (R) 19(1) 39*
   c. Mistakes have led to positive changes here 42(11) 58*
   d. Staff worry that mistakes they make are kept in their personnel file (R) 23(4) 28*
Overall (Cronbach's α = 0.86) 44 (5)† 67*
  1. R = item was reverse coded
  2. *Significantly different t test at p,0.05 (using same SD for both data)
  3. Lover in university hospital to general and teaching hospital (p < 0.001)
  4. Lower in physicians to nurses (p < 0.05)
  5. §Lower in staff working in Emergency/ICU/OR (p < 0.05)
  6. # Lower in staff working 50 hour or more per week (p < 0.05)