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Table 3 Cross-countries comparison of internal consistency of explorative factor analysis of the HSOPS

From: Patient safety in surgical environments: Cross-countries comparison of psychometric properties and results of the Norwegian version of the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety

Explorative factor analysis
Patient safety culture factors of the HSOPSa Items United States [35]
(n= 1437)
Hospital environment
Cronbach's α
Netherlands [5]
(n= 3585)
Hospital environment
Cronbach's α
Norway
[8]
(n= 1919)
Hospital environment
Cronbach's α
Norway
(n= 358)
Operating environment
Cronbach's α
Outcome variables      
1.    Overall safety 4 0.74 0.62 0.76 0.78
2.    Frequency of events 3 0.84 0.79 0.82 0.82
Unit-level factors      
3.    Leader's expectations 4 0.75 0.70 0.79 0.85
4.    Continuous improvement 3 0.76 0.57 0.51 0.64
5.    Teamwork within units 4 0.83 0.66 0.77 0.75
6.    Open communication 3 0.72 0.72 0.68 0.67
7.    Error feedback 3 0.78 0.75 0.70 0.73
8.    Non-punitive 3 0.79 0.69 0.64 0.68
9.    Adequate staffing 4 0.63 0.49 0.65 0.59
Hospital-level factors      
10. Management support 3 0.83 0.68 0.79 0.80
11. Teamwork across units 4 0.80 0.68 0.65 0.73
12. Handoffs and transitions 4 0.80 0.59 0.65 0.68
  1. a Complete labels: 1: overall perceptions of safety; 2: frequency of events reported; 3; supervisors' or managers' expectations and actions promoting patient safety; 4: organizational learning - continuous improvement; 5: teamwork within units; 6: communication openness; 7: feedback and communication about error; 8: non-punitive response to error; 9: adequate staffing; 10: hospital management support for patient safety; 11: teamwork across hospital units; 12: hospital handoffs and transitions.