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Table 4 Types of informal payments reported (31 publications reviewed)1

From: Empirical studies on informal patient payments for health care services: a systematic and critical review of research methods and instruments

Classification category Sub-categories N Reference index in Appendix 1
Who initiates the informal payment? Patients (expression of gratitude) 9 11,15,17,20,21,22,23,24,25
  Provider (demanded by a provider) 9 3,11,17,20,21,22,23,24,25
What is the nature of informal payment? Payments in cash 20 1,2,3,5,10,11,15,16,17,18,20,21,22,23,24,25,27,29,30,31
  Payments in kind (gifts) 18 1,2,3,5,10,11,15,16,17,18,20,21,23,24,25,27,29,31
  Payments in a form of services 4 17,20,24,31
What is the moment of informal payment? Before/during treatment (mostly in cash) 5 2,10,17,20,23
  After treatment (mostly gifts) 3 2,20,23
Who receives the informal payment? General practitioner 10 2,5,11,12,17,21,23,24,27,30
  Medical specialist 6 2,3,6,12,21,24
  e.g. Surgeons 7 1,10,11,19,20,21,23
  e.g. Dentists 4 21,24,29,30
  e.g. Obstetrics-gynaecologist 4 11,19,20,23
  Other medical staff 3 3,11,30
  e.g. Nurses 6 3,6,17,21,25,30
  e.g. Emergency staff 1 24
  Health care institution (Incl. quasi-official payments when the patient receives a kind of receipt) 3 10,25,29
What is the purpose of the informal payment? Expression-of-gratitude 10 1,2,8,13,17,20,21,22,24,25
  Fee-for-service 6 13,20,21,22,23,27
  Fee-for-commodity 4 17,21,23,27
  Fee-for-access 4 8,13,17,27
  Fee-for-quick-access 6 2,3,13,17,23,24
  Fee-for-better-quality 10 1,2,10,13,17,20,21,22,23,24
  Fee-for-psychological-comfort 4 3,13,20,28
What is the amount of informal payment? (% of monthly income) Less than 30% 3 2,20,30
  More than 80% 2 17,30
How is the informal payment perceived? Tradition/gratitude 4 3,17,20,23
  Illegal behaviour 1 22
  Corruption 3 2,20,22
What is the attitude of the respondent toward the informal payment? Negative (requested) 6 7,10,19,20,21,23
  Positive (gratuity) 5 7,19,20,21,23
  1. 1 One publication can be associated with more than one sub-category.