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Table 2 Specificities of data collection (31 publications reviewed)1

From: Empirical studies on informal patient payments for health care services: a systematic and critical review of research methods and instruments

Classification category Sub-categories N Reference index in Appendix 1
Sampling unit General public: households 13 1,2,3,4,9,10,11,15,18,21,22,29,30
  General public: individuals 10 7,12,13,14,16,20,21,24,25,27
  Patients 5 5,17,23,26,28
  Providers 10 2,6,13,17,19,20,23,25,28,31
  Officials 3 2,19,24
  Other (newspapers) 1 8
Sampling area Cities 9 1,7,10,14,21,22,23,27,30
  Districts 7 5,13,15,17,19,26,28
  Single country non-representative 7 3,4,8,24,25,29,31
  Single country representative 7 2,6,11,12,16,18,20
  Multiple country non-representative 4 2,9,21,25
  Multiple country representative 1 16
Sample selection Random sample 8 4,12,13,15,20,21,27,30
  Stratified random sample 9 2,3,10,16,22,25,26,29,31
  Stratified sample 5 1,5,6,14,24
  Purposive sample 1 8
  Convenience sample 3 7,13,17
  Snowball sample 2 17,23
  Not presented 5 9,11,18,19,28
Sample size (units) Higher than 10000 3 2,9,16
  2000 - 3000 5 11,14,18,24,29
  1000 - 2000 9 3,4,5,6,12,20,26,30,31
  Less than 1000 12 1,7,8,10,13,17,19,22,23,26,27,28
  Not presented 2 15,21
Number of data collection modes applied in the study One type 18 1,3,5,6,7,8,10,11,12,16,19,21,22,24,26,27,30,31
  Two types 3 13,17,23
  Three types 3 2,20,25
  More than three types 1 28
  Not clear 6 4,9,14,15,18,29
Data collection mode applied for general public and patients Self-administrated questionnaire 3 7,11,24
  Face-to-face structured interview 13 1,2,5,10,12,16,20,22,25,26,27,28,30
  Telephone interview 3 3,4,21
  Semi-structured/in-depth interview 5 13,17,20,23,25
  Focus-group discussion 6 2,13,17,23,25,28
  Not clear (interview/questionnaire) 5 9,14,15,18,29
Data collection mode applied for providers and officials Self-administrated questionnaire 2 24,31
  Interview 8 6,13,17,19,20,23,25,28
  Focus-group discussion 5 2,13,23,26,28
  Stakeholder workshop 1 2
  Diary 1 28
  1. 1One publication can be associated with more than one sub-category.