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Table 5 Factors associated with the outpatient visits in recent 6 months estimated by GEE

From: Factors affecting costs and utilization of type 2 diabetes healthcare: a cross-sectional survey among 15 hospitals in urban China

Variable AOR SE Z P value 95% CI
Insurance       
   Urban employee insurance or resident insurance/none 1.182 0.197 1.01 0.314 0.853 1.639
   Commercial insurance/none* 1.014 0.148 0.10 0.924 0.762 1.349
   Cooperative Medical Scheme/none 0.996 0.293 -0.01 0.988 0.559 1.774
Lifestyle intervention: yes/no 1.076 0.075 1.06 0.290 0.939 1.234
Drug therapy: yes/no 0.961 0.074 -0.52 0.603 0.827 1.117
Insulin therapy: yes/no 1.136 0.135 1.07 0.285 0.899 1.434
Hospital: secondary/tertiary 1.232 0.036 7.10 < 0.001 1.163 1.306
Gender: male/female 0.971 0.049 -0.59 0.553 0.879 1.071
Employed/non-employed 0.926 0.076 -0.94 0.349 0.788 1.088
Individual income: higher/lower 1.170 0.172 1.07 0.285 0.877 1.562
Age (years) 1.005 0.004 1.26 0.209 0.997 1.012
Disease course (years) 0.995 0.002 -2.15 0.032 0.991 1.000
Complication number 1.064 0.012 5.43 < 0.001 1.040 1.087
HbA1c value 0.976 0.013 -1.84 0.065 0.951 1.002
  1. Note: Estimated by Poisson loglinear function, using generalized estimating equation models; adjusted for clustering on city.
  2. AOR: Adjusted Odds ratio; 95% CI: 95% confidence interval of AOR; SE: Std. Err; †: P < 0.05; ‡: P < 0.01. *: When patients simultaneously had commercial insurance and other plans, they were categorized into the other groups.