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Table 4 Factors affecting OOP of annual DMC estimated by GEE

From: Factors affecting costs and utilization of type 2 diabetes healthcare: a cross-sectional survey among 15 hospitals in urban China

Variable AOR SE Z P value 95% CI
Insurance (Reference: none)       
   Urban employee insurance or resident insurance 0.556 0.113 -2.89 0.004 0.374 0.828
   Commercial insurance* 0.616 0.131 -2.28 0.023 0.406 0.935
   Cooperative medical scheme 0.812 0.071 -2.38 0.017 0.684 0.964
Lifestyle intervention: yes/no 0.992 0.096 -0.08 0.937 0.821 1.199
Drug therapy: yes/no 0.966 0.119 -0.28 0.780 0.760 1.229
Insulin therapy: yes/no 0.994 0.039 -0.16 0.876 0.920 1.074
Hospital: secondary/tertiary 0.934 0.009 -7.26 < 0.001 0.917 0.951
Gender: male/female 0.950 0.041 -1.20 0.229 0.873 1.033
Employment: employed/unemployed 1.083 0.040 2.14 0.033 1.007 1.165
Individual income: higher/lower 0.735 0.099 -2.29 0.022 0.565 0.956
Age (years) 0.988 0.004 -3.36 0.001 0.981 0.995
Disease course (years) 0.991 0.004 -2.40 0.016 0.984 0.998
Education 0.967 0.028 -1.19 0.235 0.914 1.022
Complication number 1.026 0.019 1.39 0.166 0.989 1.064
HbA1c value 1.019 0.018 1.05 0.294 0.984 1.055
  1. Note: Estimated by gamma log link function, using generalized estimating equations; adjusted for clustering on city.
  2. AOR: Adjusted Odds ratio; 95% CI: 95% confidence interval of AOR; SE: Std. Err; OOP: out-of-pocket; †: P < 0.05; ‡: P < 0.01. *: When patients simultaneously had commercial insurance and other plans, they were categorized into the other groups.
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