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Table 3 Factors associated with annual DMC estimated by GEE

From: Factors affecting costs and utilization of type 2 diabetes healthcare: a cross-sectional survey among 15 hospitals in urban China

Variable AOR SE Z P value 95% CI
Insurance (Reference: none)       
   Urban employee insurance or resident insurance 1.243 0.219 1.23 0.217 0.880 1.757
   Commercial insurance* 1.277 0.053 5.86 < 0.001 1.177 1.386
   Cooperative Medical Scheme 0.463 0.192 -1.85 0.064 0.205 1.046
Lifestyle intervention: yes/no 0.988 0.110 -0.11 0.915 0.795 1.229
Drug therapy: yes/no 1.029 0.046 0.64 0.524 0.942 1.124
Insulin therapy: yes/no 1.575 0.162 4.42 < 0.001 1.288 1.927
Hospital: secondary/tertiary 1.215 0.138 1.72 0.085 0.973 1.517
Gender: male/female 1.146 0.076 2.06 0.039 1.007 1.305
Employed/non-employed 0.880 0.057 -1.99 0.047 0.775 0.998
Individual income: higher/lower 0.964 0.080 -0.44 0.657 0.820 1.134
Age (years) 1.002 0.004 0.52 0.600 0.994 1.011
Disease course (years) 0.996 0.008 -0.47 0.637 0.982 1.011
Education 1.017 0.093 0.19 0.849 0.851 1.217
Complication number 1.325 0.084 4.42 < 0.001 1.169 1.501
HbA1c value 0.980 0.039 -0.51 0.612 0.906 1.060
  1. Note: Estimated by gamma log link function, using generalized estimating equations; adjusted for clustering on city.
  2. DMC: direct medical costs; AOR: Adjusted Odds ratio; 95% CI: 95% confidence interval of AOR; SE: Std. Err; OOP: out-of-pocket; †: P < 0.05; ‡: P < 0.01. *: When patients simultaneously had commercial insurance and other plans, they were categorized into the other groups.