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Table 1 Summary of Economic Analyses

From: A systematic review of economic analyses of telehealth services using real time video communication

Article Service Setting Clinical Discipline Study Type Ec Analysis Type & Quality Score Technology & Connectivity Perspective Cost Outcomes Telehealth outcome vs usual care
Ruskin 2004[51] Rural outpatient Psychiatry RCT CMA 84 Computer,
ISDN
Health service More Same
Modai 2006[72] Rural outpatient Psychiatry ProspCC CCA 45 Not specified, ISDN Health service More Same
O'Reilly 2007[73] Rural outpatient Psychiatry RCT CMA 54 VC, ISDN Health service Less Same
Shore 2007[29] Rural outpatient Psychiatry DiagAcc CMA 57 VC, ISDN Health service Mixed1 Same
Crow 2009[35] Rural outpatient Psychology RCT CEA 77 Not specified, T1 line Societal Less (HS less) Less2
Persaud 2005[53] Rural outpatient Psychiatry & dermatology RetCoh CMA 46 Not specified, 384 kbits/sec Societal Less (HS more) Same
Oakley 2000[74] Rural outpatient Dermatology RCT CCA 15 Computer, ISDN Patient Less Same
Loane 2001a[32] Rural outpatient Dermatology RCT CMA 70 Computer, ISDN Societal Less (HS more) Same
Loane 2001b[59] Rural outpatient Dermatology RCT CMA 40 VC, ISDN Health service More Same
Chua 2001[36] Rural outpatient Neurology RCT CCA 25 VC, ISDN Health service More Less
Bergmo 1997[52] Rural outpatient Ear nose & throat RetCoh CMA 68 VC, ISDN Societal Less (HS less) Same
Ohinmaa 2002[33] Rural outpatient Orthopaedics RCT CMA 71 VC, ISDN Societal Less (HS more) Same
Bishai 2003[62] Rural outpatient Gynaecology DiagAcc CCA 84 VC, T1 line Societal More More
Pronovost 2009[31] Rural outpatient Pain management RCT CMA 93 VC, broadband Societal Less (HS more) Same
Johnston 2000[39] Home care Nursing RCT CCA 19 Not specified
Not specified
Health service Less Same
Smith 2002[42] Home care Nursing(CPAP) DiagAcc CMA 25 Custom, PSTN Health service Less Same
Bohnenkamp 2004[41] Home care Nursing NRT CCA 35 TV, PSTN Health service Same More
Finkelstein 2006[38] Home care Nursing RCT CCA 67 TV, PSTN Health service Less More
Chan 2000[58] Residential care Dermatology DiagAcc CCA 32 VC, ISDN Health service Less Less3
DeMaio 2001[43] Home care Infectious diseases B&A CMA 15 Vphone, ISDN Health service Less Same
Jerant 2001[37] Home care Cardiology RCT CCA 67 Not specified PSTN Health service Less More
Eron 2006[40] Home care Internal medicine ProspCC CCA 67 Not specified PSTN Health service Less More
Rendina 1997[75] Rural inpatient Paediatric Cardiol B&A CBA 56 VC, T1 line Health service Less Same
Sable 1999[55] Rural inpatient Paediatric Cardiol DiagAcc CBA 27 Computer ISDN Health service Less More
Sicotte 2004[56] Rural inpatient Paediatric Cardiol DiagAcc CEA 63 VC, ISDN Health service More More
Dowie 2007[71] Rural inpatient Paediatric Cardiol ProspCoh CCA 85 VC, ISDN Societal Mixed4 (HS more) More
Ehlers 2008[76] Rural inpatient Neurology EcModel CUA 65 Computer, Not specified Societal Less (HS more) More
Wong 2006[64] Rural inpatient Neurosurgery RCT CCA 64 VC, ISDN Health service More Same
Noble 2005[61] Rural inpatient Emerg med RCT CCA 60 Not spec, ISDN Societal More Same
Duchesne 2008[57] Rural inpatient Emerg med B&A CCA 34 VC, T1 line Health service Less More
Kunkler 2007[60] Rural inpatient Oncology RCT CMA 64 VC, ISDN Health service Less Same
Loane 2000[45] Hosp to PCare Dermatology RCT CMA 54 VC, ISDN Health service More Same
Wootton 2000[46] Hosp to PCare Dermatology RCT CCA 81 VC, ISDN Societal More Same
Jacklin 2003[47] Hosp to PCare General practice RCT CCA 92 Computer, ISDN Societal More Same
Rosenfeld 2000[50] Specialist on-call Intensive Care B&A CCA 80 Computer, Not specified Health service Less More
Breslow 2004[49] Specialist on-call Intensive Care B&A CCA 53 VC, T1 line Health service Less More
  1. B&A = before and after study, DiagAcc = diagnostic accuracy study, EcModel = economic modelling, NRT = non-random trial, ProspCC = prospective case control, ProspCoh = prospective cohort, RCT = randomised controlled trial, RetCoh = retrospective cohort study
  2. ISDN = Integrated Services Digital Network, VC = videoconferencing, Vphone = videophone, Hosp to PCare = Hospital outpatients clinic to local health centre
  3. CMA cost-miminisation analysis, CCA cost-consequences analysis, CBA cost-benefit analysis, CEA cost-effectiveness analysis
  4. 1. Cost more in 2003, and less in 2005
  5. 2. Less effective, but increased patient access to services
  6. 3. Worse diagnostic accuracy, but increased patient access to services
  7. 4. Cost less for neonates, more for other patient groups