100%, respectively. Annual mark-ups increased dramatically each year to cover increasing recurrent costs, and by 2007, only 19% and 46% of products revealed mark-ups of < 50% and 50-99%, respectively; while 35% of products revealed mark-ups > 100%. 2007 medicine mark-ups varied substantially across these products, ranging from 32% to 244%. Mark-ups needed to sustain private pharmacies would be even higher in the absence of government subsidies. Conclusion Pharmacy networks can be established in hard-to-reach regions with little funding using public-private partnership, resource-sharing models. Medicine prices and mark-ups must be interpreted with consideration for regional costs of business. Mark-ups vary dramatically across medicines. Some mark-ups appear "excessive" but are likely necessary for pharmacy viability. Pharmacy financial data is available in remote settings and can be used towards determination of "reasonable" medicine price goals. Health systems researchers must document the positive and negative financial experiences of pharmacy initiatives to inform future projects and advance access to medicines goals."/>
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Table 2 Retail mark-up trends for the 50 top-selling products*, 2004-2007

From: Balancing medicine prices and business sustainability: analyses of pharmacy costs, revenues and profit shed light on retail medicine mark-ups in rural Kyrgyzstan

  # of products per mark-up category
  < 50% n (%) 50-99% n (%) 100-200% n (%) > 200% n (%)
2004 26 (74) 5 (14) 2 (6) 2 (6)
2005 27 (55) 17 (35) 3 (6) 2 (4)
2006 14 (29) 21 (44) 12 (25) 1 (2)
2007 9 (19) 22 (46) 15 (31) 2 (4)
  1. *50 most profitable products 2005-2007. Not all products sold in all years.