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Table 3 Effect of safety net activities on operating expenditure

From: The relationship between safety net activities and hospital financial performance

  Continuous safety net measures Binary safety net measures
  (1) OLS (2) Fe (3) Fe-Binary
Log Medicaid intensity * 1990 -0.239 [0.074]** -0.090 [0.053]  
Log Medicaid intensity * 1991 -0.245 [0.073]** -0.115 [0.046]* -0.007 [0.011]
Log Medicaid intensity * 1992 -0.225 [0.077]** -0.077 [0.042] -0.008 [0.013]
Log Medicaid intensity * 1993 -0.162 [0.076]* -0.031 [0.038] 0.003 [0.014]
Log Medicaid intensity * 1994 -0.170 [0.077]* -0.028 [0.037] -0.003 [0.017]
Log Medicaid intensity * 1995 -0.043 [0.076] -0.013 [0.038] 0.001 [0.019]
Log Medicaid intensity * 1996 0.139 [0.080] 0.035 [0.041] 0.011 [0.021]
Log Medicaid intensity * 1997 0.161 [0.078]* 0.026 [0.043] 0.010 [0.024]
Log Medicaid intensity * 1998 0.230 [0.075]** 0.062 [0.047] 0.011 [0.025]
Log Medicaid intensity * 1999 0.231 [0.070]** 0.013 [0.048] 0.006 [0.026]
SES index *1990 -0.008 [0.007] -0.086 [0.014]**  
SES index *1991 -0.011 [0.007] -0.087 [0.013]** -0.005 [0.012]
SES index *1992 -0.005 [0.007] -0.084 [0.013]** 0.015 [0.015]
SES index *1993 -0.012 [0.007] -0.086 [0.013]** 0.008 [0.016]
SES index *1994 -0.012 [0.007] -0.086 [0.013]** 0.026 [0.020]
SES index *1995 -0.017 [0.007]* -0.086 [0.013]** 0.036 [0.023]
SES index *1996 -0.024 [0.007]** -0.090 [0.013]** 0.033 [0.024]
SES index *1997 -0.028 [0.007]** -0.094 [0.014]** 0.026 [0.026]
SES index *1998 -0.028 [0.007]** -0.099 [0.014]** 0.029 [0.026]
SES index *1999 -0.033 [0.007]** -0.102 [0.014]** 0.019 [0.027]
log(case mix index) 2.953 [0.471]** 0.054 [0.329] 0.156 [0.331]
log(discharges) 0.163 [0.137] 0.436 [0.128]** 0.453 [0.132]**
Log(visits) 0.271 [0.106]* 0.003 [0.053] 0.002 [0.054]
Log(discharges) squared 0.068 [0.010]** 0.028 [0.008]** 0.031 [0.008]**
Log(visits) squared 0.012 [0.007] 0.020 [0.003]** 0.022 [0.003]**
Log(case mix)*log(discharged) -0.216 [0.051]** 0.024 [0.037] 0.014 [0.037]
Log(visits)*log(discharges) -0.047 [0.014]** -0.044 [0.007]** -0.050 [0.008]**
Log(Medicare wage index) 0.371 [0.393] 0.216 [0.374] 0.267 [0.382]
Log(Medicare wage index)squared 0.106 [0.135] -0.117 [0.091] -0.109 [0.091]
Log(visits)*log(Medicare wage index) 0.132 [0.042]** -0.031 [0.025] -0.045 [0.026]
Log(discharges)*log(Medicare wage index) -0.169 [0.049]** 0.015 [0.042] 0.027 [0.042]
Log(intern-to-bed ratio) 0.915 [0.049]** 0.174 [0.086]* 0.151 [0.086]
Not-for-profit -0.005 [0.011]   
For-profit -0.022 [0.014]   
1991 dummy 0.123 [0.022]** 0.137 [0.014]** 0.128 [0.011]**
1992 dummy 0.227 [0.028]** 0.249 [0.017]** 0.258 [0.014]**
1993 dummy 0.302 [0.033]** 0.328 [0.020]** 0.354 [0.017]**
1994 dummy 0.395 [0.035]** 0.396 [0.024]** 0.429 [0.020]**
1995 dummy 0.354 [0.038]** 0.434 [0.027]** 0.475 [0.022]**
1996 dummy 0.343 [0.041]** 0.480 [0.029]** 0.537 [0.024]**
1997 dummy 0.357 [0.043]** 0.544 [0.030]** 0.601 [0.026]**
1998 dummy 0.390 [0.045]** 0.596 [0.033]** 0.669 [0.028]**
1999 dummy 0.445 [0.045]** 0.696 [0.033]** 0.757 [0.029]**
Log percent Medicare*1990 0.104 [0.059] 0.367 [0.066]** 0.398 [0.066]**
Log percent Medicare*1991 0.059 [0.061] 0.306 [0.063]** 0.357 [0.063]**
Log percent Medicare*1992 0.054 [0.062] 0.280 [0.058]** 0.310 [0.059]**
Log percent Medicare*1993 0.034 [0.066] 0.261 [0.055]** 0.274 [0.056]**
Log percent Medicare*1994 -0.011 [0.063] 0.248 [0.054]** 0.260 [0.055]**
Log percent Medicare*1995 0.117 [0.063] 0.258 [0.053]** 0.269 [0.055]**
Log percent Medicare*1996 0.217 [0.068]** 0.290 [0.054]** 0.287 [0.055]**
Log percent Medicare*1997 0.275 [0.069]** 0.285 [0.055]** 0.290 [0.056]**
Log percent Medicare*1998 0.253 [0.070]** 0.270 [0.058]** 0.266 [0.060]**
Log percent Medicare*1999 0.186 [0.071]** 0.154 [0.060]** 0.175 [0.062]**
Log(System HHI)*1990 -0.135 [0.013]** -0.135 [0.020]** -0.172 [0.020]**
Log(System HHI)*1991 -0.125 [0.013]** -0.128 [0.020]** -0.161 [0.020]**
Log(System HHI)*1992 -0.100 [0.014]** -0.109 [0.020]** -0.138 [0.020]**
Log(System HHI)*1993 -0.078 [0.014]** -0.094 [0.020]** -0.120 [0.020]**
Log(System HHI)*1994 -0.048 [0.015]** -0.074 [0.020]** -0.094 [0.020]**
Log(System HHI)*1995 -0.045 [0.014]** -0.065 [0.019]** -0.082 [0.020]**
Log(System HHI)*1996 -0.041 [0.015]** -0.058 [0.021]** -0.071 [0.021]**
Log(System HHI)*1997 -0.030 [0.016] -0.044 [0.021]* -0.053 [0.022]*
Log(System HHI)*1998 -0.000 [0.016] -0.024 [0.022] -0.027 [0.022]
Log(System HHI)*1999 0.000 [0.017] -0.023 [0.022] -0.022 [0.022]
Mean HMO penetration*1990 0.047 [0.037]   
Mean HMO penetration*1991 -0.013 [0.037] -0.037 [0.013]** -0.035 [0.012]**
Mean HMO penetration*1992 -0.084 [0.036]* -0.096 [0.018]** -0.103 [0.016]**
Mean HMO penetration*1993 -0.113 [0.036]** -0.125 [0.020]** -0.136 [0.019]**
Mean HMO penetration*1994 -0.146 [0.037]** -0.143 [0.025]** -0.158 [0.023]**
Mean HMO penetration*1995 -0.166 [0.037]** -0.154 [0.028]** -0.174 [0.026]**
Mean HMO penetration*1996 -0.170 [0.036]** -0.174 [0.031]** -0.195 [0.030]**
Mean HMO penetration*1997 -0.150 [0.036]** -0.178 [0.033]** -0.199 [0.031]**
Mean HMO penetration*1998 -0.090 [0.038]* -0.157 [0.035]** -0.181 [0.034]**
Mean HMO penetration*1999 -0.086 [0.039]* -0.199 [0.037]** -0.220 [0.036]**
Observations 16680 16680 16680
  1. Notes:
  2. Source: AHA Annual Hospital Survey and Medicare Hospital Cost Reports (1990-1999)
  3. aA high score on SES index indicates low socioeconomic status Robust standard errors in brackets
  4. *Significant at p < 0.05; ** significant at p < 0.01%