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Table 2 Effect of safety net activities on hospital total profit margin

From: The relationship between safety net activities and hospital financial performance

  Continuous safety net measures Binary safety net measures
  (1) OLS (2) Fe (3) Fe-Binary
Log Medicaid intensity * 1990 -0.037 [0.023] -0.021 [0.027]  
Log Medicaid intensity * 1991 -0.040 [0.022] -0.025 [0.024] -0.005 [0.007]
Log Medicaid intensity * 1992 -0.016 [0.023] -0.002 [0.022] 0.011 [0.009]
Log Medicaid intensity * 1993 -0.034 [0.020] -0.016 [0.021] 0.015 [0.010]
Log Medicaid intensity * 1994 -0.012 [0.019] 0.032 [0.020] 0.024 [0.010]*
Log Medicaid intensity * 1995 -0.017 [0.021] 0.011 [0.019] 0.024 [0.011]*
Log Medicaid intensity * 1996 -0.013 [0.023] 0.033 [0.021] 0.026 [0.010]*
Log Medicaid intensity * 1997 0.004 [0.025] 0.057 [0.023]* 0.033 [0.011]**
Log Medicaid intensity * 1998 0.016 [0.030] 0.046 [0.028] 0.048 [0.015]**
Log Medicaid intensity * 1999 0.001 [0.028] 0.030 [0.028] 0.029 [0.013]*
SES indexa *1990 -0.007 [0.002]** 0.003 [0.007]  
SES index *1991 -0.005 [0.002]* 0.006 [0.006] 0.006 [0.007]
SES index *1992 -0.001 [0.002] 0.009 [0.006] 0.014 [0.011]
SES index *1993 0.002 [0.002] 0.012 [0.006] 0.032 [0.011]**
SES index *1994 0.001 [0.002] 0.011 [0.007] 0.026 [0.012]*
SES index *1995 -0.001 [0.002] 0.009 [0.007] 0.018 [0.012]
SES index *1996 -0.007 [0.002]** 0.003 [0.006] 0.009 [0.012]
SES index *1997 -0.008 [0.003]** 0.001 [0.007] 0.010 [0.013]
SES index *1998 -0.012 [0.003]** -0.001 [0.007] 0.004 [0.015]
SES index *1999 -0.010 [0.003]** 0.001 [0.007] 0.028 [0.017]
log(case mix index) -0.365 [0.119]** 0.020 [0.156] -0.010 [0.156]
log(discharges) 0.182 [0.037]** 0.334 [0.065]** 0.345 [0.065]**
Log(visits) 0.003 [0.026] 0.013 [0.027] 0.008 [0.028]
Log(discharges)squared -0.008 [0.003]** -0.017 [0.004]** -0.018 [0.004]**
Log(visits)squared 0.001 [0.002] -0.001 [0.001] -0.001 [0.001]
Log(case mix)*log(discharged) 0.044 [0.013]** -0.001 [0.017] 0.003 [0.017]
Log(visits)*log(discharges) -0.002 [0.003] 0.002 [0.003] 0.001 [0.003]
Log(Medicare wage index) 0.060 [0.092] 0.307 [0.167] 0.282 [0.166]
Log(Medicare wage index)squared -0.125 [0.034]** -0.044 [0.042] -0.040 [0.042]
Log(visits)*log(Medicare wage index) 0.005 [0.010] -0.010 [0.011] -0.008 [0.011]
Log(discharges)*log(Medicare wage index) -0.016 [0.012] -0.014 [0.019] -0.013 [0.018]
Log(intern-to-bed ratio) -0.063 [0.012]** -0.103 [0.042]* -0.103 [0.042]*
Not-for-profit -0.007 [0.003]*   
For-profit 0.020 [0.005]**   
1991 dummy 0.004 [0.012] 0.004 [0.010] 0.003 [0.008]
1992 dummy -0.010 [0.013] -0.004 [0.013] -0.003 [0.010]
1993 dummy -0.031 [0.013]* -0.027 [0.013]* -0.031 [0.010]**
1994 dummy -0.021 [0.015] -0.025 [0.014] -0.016 [0.011]
1995 dummy -0.013 [0.015] -0.010 [0.015] -0.009 [0.011]
1996 dummy -0.018 [0.016] -0.020 [0.016] -0.011 [0.012]
1997 dummy -0.020 [0.017] -0.020 [0.016] -0.006 [0.012]
1998 dummy -0.035 [0.018] -0.020 [0.018] -0.013 [0.014]
1999 dummy -0.044 [0.019]* -0.027 [0.019] -0.022 [0.015]
Log percent Medicare*1990 -0.063 [0.023]** 0.002 [0.032] -0.007 [0.030]
Log percent Medicare*1991 -0.065 [0.019]** -0.002 [0.030] -0.013 [0.028]
Log percent Medicare*1992 -0.035 [0.023] 0.018 [0.029] 0.008 [0.028]
Log percent Medicare*1993 -0.013 [0.020] 0.047 [0.028] 0.049 [0.027]
Log percent Medicare*1994 -0.029 [0.019] 0.038 [0.026] 0.019 [0.025]
Log percent Medicare*1995 -0.003 [0.021] 0.057 [0.026]* 0.050 [0.025]*
Log percent Medicare*1996 0.010 [0.023] 0.075 [0.027]** 0.061 [0.025]*
Log percent Medicare*1997 0.011 [0.023] 0.075 [0.027]** 0.056 [0.025]*
Log percent Medicare*1998 -0.020 [0.026] 0.018 [0.030] 0.017 [0.028]
Log percent Medicare*1999 -0.020 [0.026] 0.014 [0.030] 0.013 [0.029]
Log(System HHI)*1990 0.025 [0.004]** 0.003 [0.011] 0.001 [0.010]
Log(System HHI)*1991 0.025 [0.004]** -0.000 [0.011] -0.004 [0.011]
Log(System HHI)*1992 0.026 [0.005]** 0.002 [0.011] -0.003 [0.011]
Log(System HHI)*1993 0.014 [0.004]** -0.008 [0.011] -0.010 [0.011]
Log(System HHI)*1994 0.010 [0.004]* -0.013 [0.011] -0.016 [0.011]
Log(System HHI)*1995 0.020 [0.005]** -0.002 [0.011] -0.005 [0.011]
Log(System HHI)*1996 0.019 [0.005]** -0.002 [0.011] -0.002 [0.011]
Log(System HHI)*1997 0.025 [0.006]** 0.003 [0.012] 0.004 [0.012]
Log(System HHI)*1998 0.018 [0.008]* -0.001 [0.013] 0.004 [0.013]
Log(System HHI)*1999 0.022 [0.007]** 0.006 [0.012] 0.012 [0.013]
Mean HMO penetration*1990 -0.039 [0.011]**   
Mean HMO penetration*1991 -0.040 [0.010]** -0.006 [0.009] -0.012 [0.008]
Mean HMO penetration*1992 -0.038 [0.011]** -0.005 [0.012] -0.018 [0.012]
Mean HMO penetration*1993 -0.023 [0.011]* 0.013 [0.013] -0.003 [0.012]
Mean HMO penetration*1994 -0.038 [0.011]** 0.000 [0.013] -0.014 [0.012]
Mean HMO penetration*1995 -0.044 [0.011]** -0.009 [0.014] -0.019 [0.013]
Mean HMO penetration*1996 -0.040 [0.012]** 0.001 [0.015] 0.001 [0.014]
Mean HMO penetration*1997 -0.040 [0.013]** -0.001 [0.015] 0.001 [0.014]
Mean HMO penetration*1998 -0.040 [0.016]* 0.006 [0.017] 0.012 [0.016]
Mean HMO penetration*1999 -0.030 [0.017] 0.025 [0.019] 0.032 [0.018]
Observations 16680 16680 16680
  1. Notes:
  2. Source: AHA Annual Hospital Survey and Medicare Hospital Cost Reports (1990-1999)
  3. aA high score on SES index indicates low socioeconomic status Robust standard errors in brackets
  4. *Significant at p < 0.05; ** significant at p < 0.01%