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Table 4 Crude and adjusted means with 95% CIs for risk factors in five patient groups.

From: Quality of care for patients with type 2 diabetes in general practice according to patients' ethnic background: a cross-sectional study from Oslo, Norway

Variable a Ethnic groups b Unadjusted d Adjusted g Adjusted h
   Meanc Ratio/Differencee(95% CI) P f Meanc Ratio/Differencee(95% CI) P f Meanc Ratio/Differencee(95% CI) P f
HbA1c (%)           
  Nor 6.91 Ref.   6.89 Ref   6.94 Ref  
  SA 7.55 1.09 (1.07 to 1.12) <0.001 7.47 1.08 (1.06 to 1.11) <0.001 7.46 1.07 (1.05 to 1.10) <0.001
  MENA 7.08 1.03 (0.99 to 1.07) 0.195 7.14 1.04 (1.00 to 1.10) 0.086 7.32 1.05 (1.01 to 1.10) 0.008
  EA 7.15 1.04 (0.99 to 1.08) 0.120 7.28 1.06 (1.01 to 1.11) 0.026 7.38 1.06 (1.01 to 1.11) 0.011
  Others 7.33 1.06 (1.02 to 1.11) 0.004 7.31 1.06 (1.02 to 1.11) 0.007 7.33 1.06 (1.01 to 1.10) 0.011
SBP (mmHg)           
  Nor 138.9 Ref   137.5 Ref   137.8 Ref  
  SA 126.7 -12.2 (-14.5 to -10.0) <0.001 130.7 -6.8 (-9.4 to -4.3) <0.001 131.0 -6.8 (-9.4 to -4.2) <0.001
  MENA 128.4 -10.5 (-14.6 to - 6.3) <0.001 132.2 -5.3 (-9.6 to -1.0) 0.015 132.8 -5.0 (-9.3 to -0.6) 0.024
  EA 132.7 -6.2 (- 11.3 to -1.2) 0.016 137.0 -0.6 (-6.1 to 5.0) 0.842 137.9 0.1 (-5.5 to 5.6) 0.981
  Others 131.1 -7.8 (-12.2 to -3.4) 0.001 134.4 -3.2 (-7.8 to 1.5) 0.181 135.5 -2.3 (-6.9 to 2.4) 0.340
DBP (mmHg)           
  Nor 79.6 Ref   80.2 Ref   80.2 Ref  
  SA 76.7 -2.9 (-4.1 to -1.6) <0.001 75.8 -4.3 (-5.7 to -2.9) <0.001 76.2 -4.0 (-5.4 to -2.5) <0.001
  MENA 76.6 -3.0 (-5.2 to -0.8) 0.008 75.3 -4.8 (-7.2 to -2.5) <0.001 75.8 -4.4 (-6.7 to -2.0) <0.001
  EA 80.4 0.8 (-2.0 to 3.5) 0.579 80.8 0.6 (-2.5 to 3.6) 0.709 81.4 1.2 (-1.8 to 4.2) 0.430
  Others 76.0 -3.6 (-5.9 to -1.2) 0.004 75.5 -4.6 (-7.2 to -2.1) <0.001 76.5 -3.7 (-6.3 to -1.2) 0.004
S-Chol (mmol/L)           
  Nor 5.15 Ref   5.11 Ref   5.14 Ref  
  SA 4.92 -0.22 (-0.36 to -0.09) 0.001 5.00 -0.12 (-0.27 to 0.04) 0.139 5.06 -0.08 (-0.24 to 0.08) 0.313
  MENA 5.15 0.01 (-0.24 to 0.25) 0.962 5.14 0.03 (-0.23 to 0.29) 0.823 5.23 0.09 (-0.18 to 0.35) 0.526
  EA 5.40 0.25 (-0.05 to 0.55) 0.099 5.45 0.33 (0.01 to 0.66) 0.046 5.51 0.37 (0.04 to 0.70) 0.026
  Others 5.14 -0.01 (-0.27 to 0.26) 0.652 5.16 0.05 (-0.23 to 0.33) 0.725 5.20 0.06 (-0.23 to 0.34) 0.702
  1. a HbA1c was log-transformed before applying the random intercept model for estimation due to highly skewed distribution of data. The results (estimates with 95% confidence intervals) were transformed back to the original scale using anti-log. SBP: systolic blood pressure; DBP: diastolic blood pressure; S-Chol: S-Cholesterol.
  2. b Nor: Norwegians; SA: South Asians, MENA: patients from Middle East/North Africa, EA: East Asians, Others: patients from other regions.
  3. c Geometric means of HbA1c and arithmetic means of SBP, DBP and S-Cholesterol.
  4. d Multiple regression models were applied to estimate difference in the particular group compared to the reference group (Norwegians).
  5. e The antilog of the effect of the ethnic group on HbA1c is the ratio of geometric means between the particular group and the reference group (Norwegians).
  6. f p-values.
  7. g Multiple regression models were applied to estimate difference in the particular group compared to reference group (Norwegians) adjusted for confounders (age, gender, diabetes duration).
  8. h Linear mixed effect models (lme in R [17]) were applied to estimate difference in the particular group compared to reference group (Norwegians) adjusted for confounders (age, gender, diabetes duration), practices and physicians (as random intercept).