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Table 1 Input parameters and sources*

From: Cost-effectiveness of human papillomavirus vaccination for prevention of cervical cancer in Taiwan

Parameters Base case value Range for sensitivity analysis Data source
Vaccine variables    
Vaccine efficacy, % 75 50-100 [10, 12, 4648]
Vaccine coverage, % 100 30-100 Assumed
Age for starting vaccination, year 12 12-36 [49]
Immunity duration, year lifetime 10-lifetime [46, 47]
Booster shot compliance, % 70 30-100 Assumed
Screening variables    
Age for starting cervical screening, year 30   [1, 39]
Screening interval, year 1 1-5 [1, 39]
Screening compliance, % 15-30 0-70 [1, 39]
Pap test sensitivity for SIL 0.60 0.40-0.80 [31, 32]
Pap test specificity for SIL 0.97 0.95-0.98 [31, 32]
Costs, US$    
Vaccine cost (3 doses) 364 273-455 Assumed
Booster shot cost 121 91-152 Assumed
Cost of Pap test 16 12-20 [41]
Cost for a false-positive SIL 66 50-83 [41]
Cost of treatment for cervical cancer 10 000 7 500-12 500 [41]
Cost of treatment for high-grade SIL 245 183-306 [41]
Utilities    
Normal population 1   Assumed
Diagnosed SIL for 1-year 0.97 0.80-1 [13, 40]
Cervical cancer 0.70 0.25-1 Assumed
Cervical cancer, follow-up 0.95 0.90-1 Assumed
Transition probabilities    
Incidence of high-risk HPV infection 0-0.09 0.5-2 × base case [69]
HPV infection resolving 0.03-0.46 0.67-1.5 × base case [3338]
Developing low-grade SIL from high-risk HPV infection 0.065 0.05-0.08 [5059]
Low-grade SIL regressing 0.027-0.142 0.67-1.5 × base case [13, 5458, 60]
Low-grade SIL regressing to previous HPV infection state, given regression occurs 0.10 0-0.20 [13, 54]
Developing high-grade SIL from low-grade SIL 0.005-0.400 0.67-1.5 × base case [5058]
High-grade SIL regressing 0.037-0.058 0.67-1.5 × base case [13, 5458, 60]
High-grade SIL regressing to well state, given regression occurs 0.45 0.40-0.50 [13, 54]
High-grade SIL regressing to previous HPV infection state, given regression occurs 0.05 0-0.10 [13, 54]
High-grade SIL regressing to low-grade SIL, given regression occurs 0.50 0.40-0.60 [13, 54]
Developing cervical cancer from high-grade SIL 0.038 0.03-0.06 [5058]
Annual probability of developing symptoms with undiagnosed cervical cancer 0-1   [13, 54, 61, 62]
Cervical cancer mortality 0.0024-0.3334 0.67-1.5 × base case Estimated by the National Cancer Registry of Taiwan
Treatment variables    
Treatment efficacy, given high-grade SIL, % 95 90-100 [13, 63, 64]
HPV infection persists, given effective treatment of high-grade SIL, % 10 0-25 [13]
Other variables    
Discount rate, % 3 0-5 [43]
Cycle length, year 1   Assumed
  1. *HPV denotes human papillomavirus; SIL, squamous intraepithelial lesion. All probabilities are annual unless otherwise noted.